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Trees of a Pinophyta species:
Araucaria heterophylla (Araucariaceae)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Orders & Families

  PinaceaePine family
  AraucariaceaeAraucaria family
  Podocarpaceae – Yellow-wood family
  Sciadopityaceae – Umbrella-pine family
  CupressaceaeCypress family
  Cephalotaxaceae – Plum-yew family
  TaxaceaeYew family

The Conifers are cone-bearing seed plants. Most are trees; some are shrubs. They are formally the Division Pinophyta or Coniferophyta.[1][2]

Conifers are Gymnosperms. They are cone-bearing seed plants with vascular tissue; all living conifers are woody plants, the great majority being trees.

Living conifers are all in the order Pinales. Typical examples include cedars, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauris, larches, pines, redwoods, spruces, and yews.

Species of conifers can be found in almost all parts of the world, and are often the most common plants in their habitats, as in the taiga. Conifers are of great economic value, and their wood is mainly used for timber and paper making The wood of conifers is known as softwood, though yew wood is actually quite hard. The division Coniferae contains about 700 living species.

They were the dominant land plants of the Mesozoic era. They were overtaken by the flowering plants, which first appeared in the Cretaceous, and became dominant in the Cainozoic era. Conifers were the main food of herbivorous dinosaurs, and their resins and poisons would have given protection against herbivores.



  1. Eckenwalder, James E. 2009. Conifers of the world: the complete reference. p. 13. Timber Press. ISBN 0881929743, ISBN 9780881929744. [1]
  2. Farjon, Aljos 2008. Natural history of conifers. Timber Press. ISBN 0881928690, ISBN 9780881928693