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|La Tour Eiffel|
The Eiffel Tower as seen from
the Champ de Mars
|Tallest in the world from 1889 to 1930[I]|
Radio broadcasting tower
|Opening||31 March 1889|
|Antenna spire||324.00 m (1,063 ft)|
|Roof||300.65 m (986 ft)|
|Top floor||273.00 m (896 ft)|
|Design and construction|
|Owner||City of Paris, France|
|Management||Société d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE)|
|Main contractor||Compagnie des Etablissements Eiffel|
The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel, [tuʁ ɛfɛl], IPA pronunciation: "EYE-full" English; "eh-FEHL" French) is a famous landmark in Paris. It was built between 1887 and 1889 for the Exposition Universelle. The Tower was the Exposition's main attraction.
It cost £35million to build. It is 300 metres tall, but this height does not include the 24 m aerial (antenna) on the top; the total height of the structure is 324 m (1058 feet). There are also 1,665 steps inside the Eiffel Tower. It weighs 10,000 tons. It consists of 18,038 pieces and 2 1/2 million rivets. There are 20,000 sparkling lights and 80 kilometers of cables covering the structure. The weight of paint used is 60 tons, and the surface to be painted - 250,000 m2. The paper used to print the visitor's tickets in a year weighs 2 tons. Three separate colors of paint are used on the Tower in order to enhance the impression of height, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top.
The Eiffel Tower was built by Gustave Eiffel for the 100th year of the French Revolution. There were 107 bids submitted to construct the Eiffel Tower, 50 people worked on the design, and more than 100 built the parts. 132 workers assembled the parts on site. At first, the Eiffel Tower was to be made in Barcelona, Spain, but the people of Barcelona did not want it. Construction began on January 28, 1887 and was concluded on March 31, 1889. When the tower was built, it was only meant to be kept for 20 years. People did not like the Eiffel Tower and reckoned they wanted it taken down. After the 20 years, the tower became the property of Paris again. By this time, the city had learned that the tower could be used to help with communications. The military used the tower to communicate during battle. The tower was used in the capture of the spy, "Mata Hari". Nobody wanted it to be taken apart.
- "Identity card of the Eiffel Tower" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. 31 December 2009. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/chiffres/page/identite.html?id=4_14. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "The documents" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/dossiers/index.html?id=4_12. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "The structure of the Eiffel Tower and its evolution" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/structure.html?id=4_13. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Chronology of the main construction periods" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/chronologie.html. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "A few statistics" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/chiffres.html. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Dictionary of technical terms" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/structure/page/lexique.html. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- (French) http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/pdf/about_the%20Eiffel_Tower.pdf?id=4_11[dead link]
- "The Tower operating company" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/chiffres/page/entreprise.html. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "The industrial maintenance of the Tower" (in (French)). Tour-eiffel.fr. http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/chiffres/page/usine.html. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- Paris Exposition of 1889, Library of Congress
- Harvie, David I. Eiffel: The Genius Who Reinvented Himself Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton, 2006. ISBN 0-7509-3309-7. p. 127.
- Eiffel Tower official website
- Eiffel Tower photos - free pictures
- Several videos of the Eiffel Tower
- Eiffel Tower A simple story for the amazing Eiffel Tower
- Eiffel Tower plans and stages of construction