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Instruction (computer science)
The size or length of an instruction varies widely, from as little as 4-bits in some microcontrollers to many as multiples of a bytes in some very long instruction word (VLIW) systems. Most modern processors used in personal computers, mainframes, and supercomputers have instruction sizes between 16 and 64 bits. In some architectures, especially Reduced instruction set computers, instructions are of fixed length, typically corresponding with that architecture's word size.
On traditional architectures, an instruction includes an opcode specifying the operation to be performed, such as "add contents of memory to register", and zero or more operand specifiers, which may specify registers, memory locations, or literal data. The operand specifiers may have addressing modes determining their meaning or may be in fixed fields.
There is another more general definition for an "instruction" not only related to the processor instruction set, which is: An "instruction" may be any representation of an element of an executable program, such as a bytecode.