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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a treaty of the United Nations to ensure the civil rights affirmed by Universal Declaration of Human Rights and one of the most important treatis on international human rights law. This Covenant has adopted in 1966 together with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and ented into force in 1976. The United Nations set up the Committee on Civil and Political Rights (CCPR) to carry out the treaty.
- Article 1. Right to self-determination.
- Article 6. Right to life and on Genocide Convention.
- Article 7. Free from torture and any inhuman treatments.
- Article 8. Free from slavery and unfree labour.
- Article 9. Right to personal security and protection from arbitrary arrest and detention. Right to demand remedy if proved innocent.
- Article 10. The right to be treated with humanity and repected dignity while in detention.
- Article 12. Freedom of movement, freedom to leave and to enter one's own country.
- Article 14. The right to a fair trial and to be regarded as innocent until found guilty.
- Article 16. Right to be recognized as a person before law.
- Article 17. Right to privacy and protection from attack of honour.
- Article 18. Freedom of thought, conscience and freedom of religion.
- Article 19. Freedom of expression and freedom of speech but with special duty and responsibility not to harm others.
- Article 20. prohibition of propaganda of war and any inciting of hatred and discrimination.
- Article 21. Freedom of assembly.
- Article 22. Right to association and trade union.
- Article 25. Right to free and fair voting.
- Article 26. Equality before law and protection from all discriminations by law.
- Article 27. Right to minority groups and ethnic group and to use their own language.
This Covenant has two Optional Protocols. One of them is to make a person of a country who has suffered from the violation of this Covenant enable to claim before the CCPR. The other is to prohibit the death penalty. But there are countries that do not agree with one of or both of the Optional Protocols.