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Jōwa (Heian period)
Jōwa (承和) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name") after Tenchō and before Kashō. This period started in January 834 and ended in July 848. During this time, the emperors were Junna-tennō (淳和天皇) and Ninmyō-tennō (仁明天皇).
Events of the Jōwa era
- 834 (Jōwa 1): Emperor Ninmyō planted a cherry tree near the shishinden to replace the tree Emperor Kammu planted when the capital of Japan was moved to Heian-kyō (Kyoto).
- 11 June 840 (Jōwa 7, 8th day of the 5th month): Former-Emperor Junna died at the age of 55.
- 841 (Jōwa 8, 11th month): A broom star was seen in the west.
Coins minted from 835 to 847 were known as Jōwa-shōhō.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Jōwa" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 434.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales empereurs du Japon, pp. 106-111; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 284; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 164-165.
- Nussbaum, "Jōwa no Hen" at p. 434.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, p. 63.
- Kukai. (1972). Kūkai: Major Works (S. Hakeda, editor), p. 59.
- Brown, p. 284; Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō): 淳和天皇 (53); retrieved 2011-12-27.
- Pankenier, David et al. (2008). Archaeoastronomy in East Asia: Historical Observational Records of Comets and Meteor Showers from China, Japan, and Korea, p. 98.
- Brown, p. 282; Varley, p. 163; Kunaichō, 嵯峨天皇 (52); retrieved 2012-5-22.
- Nussbaum, "Nihon Kōki" at p. 709.
- Nussbaum, "Jōwa-shōhō" at p. 434.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
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