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John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough



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John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
John Churchill
The Duke of Marlborough. Oil by Adriaen van der Werff.
AllegianceEngland (1667–1707)
United Kingdom (1707–1722)
Service/branchBritish army
AwardsOrder of the Garter
Signature

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough KG PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an important English soldier and statesman. He lived through the rules of five monarchs through the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Rising from a lowly page at the court of the House of Stuart, he faithfully served the Duke of York through the 1670s and early 1680s. This gave him military and political advancement through his brave, clever skill. Churchill helped secure James on the throne.

However, just three years later he left his Catholic teacher for the Protestant Dutchman, William of Orange. For his help in the Glorious Revolution, William at his coronation made him Earl of Marlborough (pronounced /'mɔ:l bəɹə/). He served in the early years of the Nine Years' War and became famous. However, charges of Jacobitism made him fall from office. For some time, he was imprisoned in the Tower. When Queen Anne came to throne in 1702, however, Marlborough secured his fame and lots of money.

His marriage to the quick-tempered Sarah Jennings – Anne's close friend – helped Marlborough's rise. He first became the Captain-Generalcy of British forces. Then he became a duke. Later, he became the richest of all Anne's subjects. Although in the end he could not completely crush his enemies, his victories allowed Britain to rise to very great power. Through him, the country grew more and more rich through the 18th century.

Titles

Title Years Followed by
Duke of Marlborough 1702–1722 Henrietta Godolphin, 2nd Duchess of Marlborough
Earl of Marlborough 1689–1722
Baron Churchill of Sandridge 1685–1722
Lord Churchill of Eyemouth 1682–1722 extinct
Prince of Mindelheim 1705–1714 Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria

Notes

Titles and styles

  • 26 May 1650 - 21 December 1682: John Churchill, Esq.
  • 21 December 1682 – 14 May 1685: The Right Honourable The Lord Churchill of Eyemouth
  • 14 May 1685 – 9 April 1689: The Right Honourable The Lord Churchill of Sandridge and Eyemouth
  • 9 April 1689 – December 1702: The Right Honourable The Earl of Marlborough
  • December 1702 – 16 June 1722: His Grace The Duke of Marlborough

References

  • Barnett, Correlli (1999). Marlborough. Wordsworth Editions Limited.

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    ISBN 184022200X
  • Chandler, David G (1998). A Guide to the Battlefields of Europe. Wordsworth Editions Limited.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 1853266949
  • Chandler, David G (2003). Marlborough as Military Commander. Spellmount Ltd.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 186227195X
  • Chesterton, G. K. (2008). A Short History of England. BiblioBazaar.

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    ISBN 0554106728
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). A History of the English-Speaking Peoples: Age of Revolution. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

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    ISBN 0304363936
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 1, vols. i & ii. University of Chicago Press.

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    ISBN 0226106330
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 2, vols. iii & iv. University of Chicago Press.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0226106357
  • Coxe, William (1847). Memoirs of the Duke of Marlborough: 6 volumes. London
  • Field, Ophelia (2002). The Favourite: Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Hodder and Stoughton.

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    ISBN 034076807X
  • Gregg, Edward (2001). Queen Anne. Yale University Press.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0-300-09024-2
  • Hamilton, Elizabeth (1968). The Backstairs Dragon: The Life of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford. Hamish Hamilton
  • Hibbert, Christopher (2001). The Marlboroughs. Penguin Books Ltd.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0670886777
  • Holmes, Richard (2008). Marlborough: England's Fragile Genius. HarperCollins.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 9780007225712
  • Jones, J. R (1993). Marlborough. Cambridge University Press.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0521375932
  • Lynn, John A (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0582056292
  • Macaulay, Thomas (1968). The History of England (abridged). Penguin Books.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0140431330
  • McKay, Derek (1977). Prince Eugene of Savoy. Thames and Hudson Ltd.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0500870071
  • Miller, John. James II (2000). Yale University Press.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 0300087284
  • Tincey, John, (2005). Sedgemoor 1685: Marlborough's First Victory. Leo Cooper Ltd.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 1844151476
  • Trevelyan, G. M (1930–34). England Under Queen Anne: 3 volumes. Longmans, Green and co.