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Temporal range: Pliocene to Holocene: 5 mya – 4,500 years ago
Mount of a Columbian mammoth
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Proboscidea
Family: Elephantidae
Genus: Mammuthus
Brookes, 1828

Mammoths were hairy elephants of the genus Mammuthus. They lived in Europe until 4,500 years ago, and were adapted to cold climate. They were killed off by hunters and climate change.

They lived in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.[1][2] In the Pleistocene, northern Europe was covered with ice and tundra. There were a series of ice ages. The whole world was much colder than it is now.

Mammoth were hunted by early humans, who used spears, and cut them up with hand axes. Their frozen flesh has been analysed for its DNA sequence.[3][4][5]

Other pages


  1. "Woolly Mammoth ('Mammuthus primigenius)". The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  2. Guthrie R.D (2004). "Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island". Nature 429 (6993): 746–9. doi:10.1038/nature02612 . PMID 15201907 .
  3. Staff (2008). "Scientists sequence woolly-mammoth genome". Penn State Live. Penn State University. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  4. Fox, Maggie (2008). "Mammoth genome sequence may explain extinction". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  5. Gilbert, Thomas P.; et al. (2007). "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts". Science (Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 317 (5846): pp 1927–1930. doi:10.1126/science.1146971 . ISSN 1095-9203 . PMID 17901335 . Retrieved 25 November 2008.

Other websites

Media related to Mammuthus at Wikimedia Commons

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