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Temporal range: Pliocene to Holocene:
5 mya – 4,500 years ago
|Mount of a Columbian mammoth|
They lived in the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs. In the Pleistocene, northern Europe was covered with ice and tundra. There were a series of ice ages, which allowed the mammoths to spread across the land.
- "Woolly Mammoth ('Mammuthus primigenius)". The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University. http://www.ansp.org/museum/jefferson/otherFossils/mammuthus.php#top. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
- Guthrie R.D (2004). "Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island". Nature 429 (6993): 746–9. . .
- Staff (2008). "Scientists sequence woolly-mammoth genome". Penn State Live. Penn State University. http://live.psu.edu/story/36123. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- Fox, Maggie (2008). Mammoth genome sequence may explain extinction. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSTRE4AI6DB20081119?pageNumber=1&virtualBrandChannel=0. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
- Gilbert, Thomas P. (2007). "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts". Science (Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science) 317 (5846): pp 1927–1930. . . . http://rw.mammoth.psu.edu/pubs/hair.pdf. Retrieved 25 November 2008.