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# Mantle (geology)

A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body that is between the core and the crust of a planetary body. Mantles are made of rock or ices. They are generally the largest layer of the planetary body. All terrestrial planets, a number of asteroids, and some moons have mantles.

## Earth's mantle

The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core. Its mass is 4.01 × 1024 kg. It makes up 67% the mass of the Earth. It has a thickness of 2,900 kilometres (1,800 mi).[1] It makes up about 84% of Earth's volume. The Earth's mantle behaves as a viscous fluid.

## Other planetary mantles

Mercury has a silicate mantle that is approximately 490 km thick. Mercury's mantle makes up 28% of its mass. Venus's silicate mantle is approximately 2800 km thick. Venus's mantle makes up around 70% of its mass. Mars's silicate mantle is approximately 1600 km thick. Mar's mantle makes up 74–88% of its mass.[1]

## Moons with mantles

Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, and Ganymede have silicate mantles. Io's mantle is 1100 km thick. Ganymede's mantle is 1315 km thick. Europa's mantle is 1165 km thick.[1] The silicate mantle of the Moon is approximately 1300–1400 km thick.[2] Titan and Triton each have a mantle made of ice or other solid volatile substances.[3][4]

## Asteroids with mantles

Some of the largest asteroids have mantles.[5] For example, Vesta has a silicate mantle similar in composition to diogenite meteorites.[6]

## References

1. Lodders, Katharina. (1998). The planetary scientist's companion. Fegley, Bruce.. New York: Oxford University Press. . .
2. Wieczorek, Mark A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Khan, Amir; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Williams, James G.; Hood, Lon L.; Righter, Kevin et al. (2006-01-01). "The Constitution and Structure of the Lunar Interior" (in en). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 60 (1): 221–364. . .
3. Reddy, Vishnu; Nathues, Andreas; Gaffey, Michael J. (2011). "First fragment of Asteroid 4 Vesta’s mantle detected" (in en). Icarus 212 (1): 175–179. .