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North Sea Germanic

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North Sea Germanic
Originally the North Sea coast from Friesland to Jutland; today, worldwide
Linguistic classification:Indo-European
Germanic dialects ca. AD 1.png
The distribution of the primary Germanic languages in Europe in around AD 1:

     North Germanic      North Sea Germanic, or Ingvaeonic      Weser-Rhine Germanic, or Istvaeonic      Elbe Germanic or Irminonic

     East Germanic

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic /ˌɪŋvˈɒnɪk/, is a group of West Germanic languages that were first spoken in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark. They were also spread to the British Isles in the Migration Period. The languages were Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon. They have become other languages since then and spread worldwide, especially the modern English language.


  • Bremmer, Rolf H. (2009). An Introduction to Old Frisian. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V.

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    ISBN 978-90-272-3255-7.
  • Euler, Wolfram (2013). Das Westgermanische - von der Herausbildung im 3. bis zur Aufgliederung im 7. Jahrhundert - Analyse und Rekonstruktion (West Germanic: from its Emergence in the 3rd up until its Dissolution in the 7th Century CE: Analyses and Reconstruction). 244 p., in German with English summary, London/Berlin 2013,

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    ISBN 978-3-9812110-7-8.
  • (in German) Maurer, Friedrich (1942) Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprachgeschichte, Stammes- und Volkskunde, Strasbourg: Hüneburg.
  • Ringe, Donald R. and Taylor, Ann (2014). The Development of Old English - A Linguistic History of English, vol. II, 632p.

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    ISBN 978-0199207848. Oxford.
  • (in German) Sonderegger, Stefan (1979). Grundzüge deutscher Sprachgeschichte. Diachronie des Sprachsystems. Band I: Einführung – Genealogie – Konstanten. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

    Template-specific style sheet:

    ISBN 3-11-003570-7.
  • Voyles, Joseph B. (1992). Early Germanic Grammar: Pre-, Proto-, and Post-Germanic. San Diego: Academic Press.

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    ISBN 0-12-728270-X.