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Peregrine Falcon

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Peregrine Falcon
Adult of subspecies pealei or tundrius, Alaska
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Falconiformes
Family: Falconidae
Genus: Falco
Species: F. peregrinus
Binomial name
Falco peregrinus
Tunstall, 1771

17-19, see text

Global range

  Breeding summer visitor   Breeding resident   Winter visitor   Passage visitor


Falco atriceps Hume
Falco kreyenborgi Kleinschmidt, 1929
Falco pelegrinoides madens Ripley & Watson, 1963
Rhynchodon peregrinus (Tunstall, 1771)
and see text

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is a cosmopolitan bird of prey in the family Falconidae. It can also be known just as the Peregrine,[2] and was once called the "Duck Hawk" in North America. In Pakistan it is officially the military iconic symbol of the PAF and the unofficial territory bird of Gilgit-Baltistan.[3][4]

It is a large, crow-sized falcon, with a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head and "moustache". It can fly at up to 322 km/h (200 mph), which means it is the fastest animal in the world.[5][6] As with other bird-eating raptors, the female is bigger than the male.[7][8] There are 17–19 subspecies recorded, and each varies slightly in appearance and where they live. There is disagreement over whether the distinctive Barbary Falcon is a subspecies of the Peregrine or just a different species.

The use of certain pesticides, especially DDT was not good for the animals. It could be shown that in areas where DDT was used, the thickness of the shells of their eggs was reduced. This caused a dramatic decline in their numbers, in certain countries. Since the use of DDT has been forbidden in many countries, their numbers are increasing again. This recovery was helped because their nesting places were protected in many countries; some countries also bred these falcons and released them into the wild.[9]

Other websites

Conservation organizations:


  1. BirdLife International (2004), Falco peregrinus: 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, retrieved 2008-05-21 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Heinzel, H.; Fitter, R.S.R.; Parslow, J. (1995), Birds of Britain and Europe (5 ed.), London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-219894-0<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Friedmann, H. (1950), "i rock birds of North and Middle America", U.S. National Museum Bulletin, 50 (11): 1–793<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. In Pakistan, the Peregrine Falcon, or Shaheen Falcon is also associated with the symbolism of the poetry of the national poet Muhammad Iqbal
  5. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1999), All about the Peregrine falcon, retrieved 17 October 2008 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Taylor, Barbara; Roger Priddy (2007). My Big Animal World. Macmillan. p. p. 54. ISBN 0312497024 .
  7. White, C.M.; et al. (199), "Family Falconida", in del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of Birds of the World: New World Vultures to Guineafow, Barcelon: Lynx Edicion, pp. 216–275, plates 24-2, ISBN 84-87334-15-6 Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)CS1 maint: Multiple names: editors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Snow, D.W.; et al. (1998), The complete birds of the western Palaearctic on CD-ROM, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192685791 Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Cade, T.J.; et al. (1988), Peregrine Falcon Populations – Their management and recovery, The Peregrine Fund, Boise, Idaho, ISBN 0-9619839-0-6 Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>