kidzsearch.com > wiki Explore:web images videos games
Rhenium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Re. It has the atomic number 75. It is a rare metal. It is silver white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements called the transition metals. The chemistry of rhenium is similar to manganese. Discovered in 1908, rhenium was the second-last stable element to be discovered ('stable' meaning not radioactive). It was named after the river Rhine in Europe.
Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. These alloys contain up to 6% rhenium, making jet engine construction the largest single use for the element. The second-most important use is as a catalyst: rhenium is an excellent catalyst for hydrogenation and isomerization.
Rhenium was discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Noddack, and Otto Berg in Germany. In 1925, they reported that they detected the element in a platinum ore and in the mineral columbite. They also found rhenium in gadolinite and molybdenite. In 1928, they were able to remove 1 g of the element from 660 kg of molybdenite.
Rhenium has one stable isotope which is rhenium-185. Rhenium that is found in nature is made up of of 37.4% rhenium-185 and 62.6% rhenium-187. Rhenium has 33 known radioisotopes. They range from rhenium-160 to rhenium-194. The longest-lived radioisotope of rhenium is rhenium-183 which have a half-life of 70 days.
Rhenium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust. It the 77th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Rhenium may not be found free in nature. It is found in small amounts in the mineral molybdenite.
Commercial rhenium is gotten from molybdenum roaster-flue gas. Some molybdenum ores contain 0.001% to 0.2% rhenium. Rhenium metal is made by reducing ammonium perrhenate with hydrogen at high temperatures.
Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. Rhenium is used in superalloys, such as CMSX-4 (2nd generation) and CMSX-10 (3rd generation). These superalloys are used in industrial gas turbine engines like the GE 7FA. Rhenium filaments are used in mass spectrometers, ion gauges and photoflash lamps in photography. Rhenium-platinum alloys are used as a catalyst for catalytic reforming. Rhenium-188 and Rhenium-186 are used to treat of liver cancer.
- "Die Ekamangane" (in de). Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (26): 567–574. 1925. . . http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01558746.
- Liu, Lin-Gun; Takahashi, Taro; Bassett, William A. (1970). "Effect of pressure and temperature on the lattice parameters of rhenium" (in en). Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 31 (6): 1345–1351. . https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0022369770901381.
- "How to Change Nuclear Decay Rates". https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/decay_rates.html.
- Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Friese, J.; Heine, F.; Kienle, P.; Wefers, E.; Zeitelhack, K.; Beckert, K. et al. (1996-12-23). "Observation of Bound-State β − Decay of Fully Ionized 187 Re: 187 Re − 187 Os Cosmochronometry" (in en). Physical Review Letters 77 (26): 5190–5193. . . https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.5190.
- Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W.J.; Naimi, S. (2017). "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties". Chinese Physics C 41 (3): 030001. . . https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001.
- Greenwood, Norman; N., Earnshaw (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). .
- Emsley, John. (2001). Nature's building blocks : an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . . https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/46984609.
- Rouschias, George (1974). "Recent advances in the chemistry of rhenium" (in en). Chemical Reviews 74 (5): 531–566. . . https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cr60291a002.
- SCHENK, P.W.; BRAUER, G. (1963). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. Elsevier. pp. 3–107. . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-395590-6.50008-9.
- Bondarenko, Yu. A.; Kablov, E. N.; Surova, V. A.; Echin, A. B. (2006). "Effect of high-gradient directed crystallization on the structure and properties of rhenium-bearing single-crystal alloy" (in en). Metal Science and Heat Treatment 48 (7-8): 360–363. . . http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11041-006-0099-6.
- Earle, G.D.; Medikonduri, R.; Rajagopal, N.; Narayanan, V.; Roddy, P.A. (2005). "Tungsten-rhenium filament lifetime variability in low pressure oxygen environments". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 33 (5): 1736–1737. . . http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1519014/.
- Ede, Andrew. (2006). The chemical element : a historical perspective. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. . . https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/64390389.
- Ryashentseva, Margarita A (1998-02-28). "Rhenium-containing catalysts in reactions of organic compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews 67 (2): 157–177. . . http://stacks.iop.org/0036-021X/67/i=2/a=R05?key=crossref.bf4b596e555b5ad2930bfa405847e496.
- R. Dilworth, Jonathan; J. Parrott, Suzanne (1998). "The biomedical chemistry of technetium and rhenium" (in en). Chemical Society Reviews 27 (1): 43. . . http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=a827043z.