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Rhenium

Rhenium is a chemical element. It has the chemical symbol Re. It has the atomic number 75. It is a rare metal. It is silver white. In chemistry it is placed in a group of metal elements called the transition metals. The chemistry of rhenium is similar to manganese. Discovered in 1908, rhenium was the second-last stable element to be discovered ('stable' meaning not radioactive). It was named after the river Rhine in Europe.

Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. These alloys contain up to 6% rhenium, making jet engine construction the largest single use for the element. The second-most important use is as a catalyst: rhenium is an excellent catalyst for hydrogenation and isomerization.

Rhenium found as a by-product of molybdenum refinement.

Rhenium is used in some manganese alloys. Rhenium-molybdenum alloys are superconductors.

History

Rhenium was discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Noddack, and Otto Berg in Germany. In 1925, they reported that they detected the element in a platinum ore and in the mineral columbite. They also found rhenium in gadolinite and molybdenite.[1] In 1928, they were able to remove 1 g of the element from 660 kg of molybdenite.[1]

Characteristics

Rhenium is a silvery-white metal. It has the third highest melting points of all elements. It is also the third densest element.[2]

Isotopes

Rhenium has one stable isotope which is rhenium-185. Rhenium that is found in nature is made up of of 37.4% rhenium-185 and 62.6% rhenium-187.[3][4] Rhenium has 33 known radioisotopes. They range from rhenium-160 to rhenium-194. The longest-lived radioisotope of rhenium is rhenium-183 which have a half-life of 70 days.[5]

Occurence

Rhenium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust.[6] It the 77th most abundant element in the Earth's crust.[7] Rhenium may not be found free in nature.[6] It is found in small amounts in the mineral molybdenite.[8]

Production

Commercial rhenium is gotten from molybdenum roaster-flue gas. Some molybdenum ores contain 0.001% to 0.2% rhenium.[6][8] Rhenium metal is made by reducing ammonium perrhenate with hydrogen at high temperatures.[9]

Uses

Nickel-based superalloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. Rhenium is used in superalloys, such as CMSX-4 (2nd generation) and CMSX-10 (3rd generation). These superalloys are used in industrial gas turbine engines like the GE 7FA.[10] Rhenium filaments are used in mass spectrometers, ion gauges and photoflash lamps in photography.[11][12] Rhenium-platinum alloys are used as a catalyst for catalytic reforming.[13] Rhenium-188 and Rhenium-186 are used to treat of liver cancer.[14]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Die Ekamangane" (in de). Die Naturwissenschaften 13 (26): 567–574. 1925. doi:10.1007/BF01558746 . ISSN 0028-1042 . http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01558746. 
  2. Liu, Lin-Gun; Takahashi, Taro; Bassett, William A. (1970). "Effect of pressure and temperature on the lattice parameters of rhenium" (in en). Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids 31 (6): 1345–1351. doi:10.1016/0022-3697(70)90138-1 . https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0022369770901381. 
  3. "How to Change Nuclear Decay Rates". https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/ParticleAndNuclear/decay_rates.html. 
  4. Bosch, F.; Faestermann, T.; Friese, J.; Heine, F.; Kienle, P.; Wefers, E.; Zeitelhack, K.; Beckert, K. et al. (1996-12-23). "Observation of Bound-State β − Decay of Fully Ionized 187 Re: 187 Re − 187 Os Cosmochronometry" (in en). Physical Review Letters 77 (26): 5190–5193. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.5190 . ISSN 0031-9007 . https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.5190. 
  5. Audi, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, Meng; Huang, W.J.; Naimi, S. (2017). "The NUBASE2016 evaluation of nuclear properties". Chinese Physics C 41 (3): 030001. doi:10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001 . ISSN 1674-1137 . https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1674-1137/41/3/030001. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Greenwood, Norman; N., Earnshaw (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8 . 
  7. Emsley, John. (2001). Nature's building blocks : an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850341-5 . OCLC 46984609 . https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/46984609. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Rouschias, George (1974). "Recent advances in the chemistry of rhenium" (in en). Chemical Reviews 74 (5): 531–566. doi:10.1021/cr60291a002 . ISSN 0009-2665 . https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/cr60291a002. 
  9. SCHENK, P.W.; BRAUER, G. (1963). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. Elsevier. pp. 3–107. ISBN 978-0-12-395590-6 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-395590-6.50008-9. 
  10. Bondarenko, Yu. A.; Kablov, E. N.; Surova, V. A.; Echin, A. B. (2006). "Effect of high-gradient directed crystallization on the structure and properties of rhenium-bearing single-crystal alloy" (in en). Metal Science and Heat Treatment 48 (7-8): 360–363. doi:10.1007/s11041-006-0099-6 . ISSN 0026-0673 . http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11041-006-0099-6. 
  11. Earle, G.D.; Medikonduri, R.; Rajagopal, N.; Narayanan, V.; Roddy, P.A. (2005). "Tungsten-rhenium filament lifetime variability in low pressure oxygen environments". IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 33 (5): 1736–1737. doi:10.1109/TPS.2005.856413 . ISSN 0093-3813 . http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1519014/. 
  12. Ede, Andrew. (2006). The chemical element : a historical perspective. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-33304-1 . OCLC 64390389 . https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/64390389. 
  13. Ryashentseva, Margarita A (1998-02-28). "Rhenium-containing catalysts in reactions of organic compounds". Russian Chemical Reviews 67 (2): 157–177. doi:10.1070/RC1998v067n02ABEH000390 . ISSN 0036-021X . http://stacks.iop.org/0036-021X/67/i=2/a=R05?key=crossref.bf4b596e555b5ad2930bfa405847e496. 
  14. R. Dilworth, Jonathan; J. Parrott, Suzanne (1998). "The biomedical chemistry of technetium and rhenium" (in en). Chemical Society Reviews 27 (1): 43. doi:10.1039/a827043z . ISSN 0306-0012 . http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=a827043z.