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Republic of Somaliland

Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland  (Somali)[1]
جمهورية أرض الصومال (language?)
Jumhūrīyat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl

Republic of Somaliland[2]
Flag of Somaliland
Location of Somaliland.
Location of Somaliland.
Official languages
GovernmentConstitutional presidential republic
• President
Muse Bihi Abdi
• Vice-President
Abdirahman Saylici
• Speaker of the House
Baashe Mohamed Farah
House of Elders
House of Representatives
from Somalia
• Proclaimed
18 May 1991
• Recognition
• Total
137,600 km2 (53,100 sq mi)
• 2008 estimate
• Density
25/km2 (64.7/sq mi)
CurrencySomaliland shillinga (SLSH)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed)
Date formatd/m/yy (AD)
Driving sideright
Calling code+252 (Somalia)
  1. Currency only valid for regional use.
Rankings unavailable as Somaliland is unrecognised.

Somaliland (officially called the Republic of Somaliland) is a country in middle-east Africa. It borders Djibouti to the west, the Federal Republic of Ethiopia to the south and Somalia to the east.[5][6]

The area used to be the Somali area which was part of the British empire along with Jubaland, which was called Trans-juba. It was called the British Somali Coast Protectorate before 26 June 1960. That year it united with Somalia called the "Somali Republic".[7] In May of 1991, after a war, Somaliland regained independence.

Currently, Somaliland is an unrecognized state. This means that no country with membership in the United Nations or international organization views Somaliland as an independent country.[3] Instead, they wrongly mistake Somaliland as a part of Somalia.

Somaliland has a republican government with free elections. The capital is Hargeisa. Berbera is a beautiful city on the coast.

People from Somaliland are often criticized for their country having declared independence from Somalia and working as an independent state. However, the country is much more peaceful than Somalia, has its own functioning market economy, and is not burdened with high tax rates, unlike other African countries. Some Dhulbahante people in the east have rejected joining Somaliland. These Dhulbahante created their own movement called Khatumo State which is now defunct after most of them reunited with Somaliland



Most people in Somaliland speak Somali and Arabic. Article 6 of the Constitution of 2001 says the official language of Somaliland is Somali,[7] but Arabic is a mandatory subject in school. English is also spoken and taught in schools.

The main Somali dialect is Standard Somali. Standard Somali is spoken in most of Somalia and in countries that border it. Standard Somali is used by almost all of the media in the Somaliland region.


Almost all Somalilanders are Muslims.[8] This is because Islam is the state religion, and practicing a religion other than Islam is against the law.[7] Small amounts of non-Islamic traditions exist in Somaliland, but Islam is very important to the Somali sense of national identity.


  1. Name used in The Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland and in Somaliland Official Gazette
  2. Susan M. Hassig, Zawiah Abdul Latif, Somalia, (Marshall Cavendish: 2007), p.10.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Lacey, Marc (5 June 2006). The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia. The New York Times.,%20but%20the%20World%20Says%20Somalia&st=cse. Retrieved 25 December 2010. 
  4. The UK Prime Minister's Office Reply To The "Somaliland E-Petition"
  5. "Somaliland Official Website". Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  6. Hoehne, Markus Virgil. "The rupture of territoriality and the diminishing relevance of cross‐cutting ties in Somalia after 1990." Development and Change 47.6 (2016): 1379-1411.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOMALILAND". International relations and security network. 31 May 2001. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  8. "Background Note: Somalia". U.S Department of State. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 

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