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# Djibouti

Republic of Djibouti

• République de Djibouti  (French)
• جمهورية جيبوتي  (language?)
• Gabuutih Ummuuno  (Afar)
Motto:
Anthem:
Location of  Djibouti  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Djibouti
11°36′N 43°10′E﻿ / ﻿11.600°N 43.167°E
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Religion
Sunni Islam
Demonym(s)Djiboutians
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
Ismaïl Omar Guelleh
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence
• from France
27 June 1977
Area
• Total
23,200[1] km2 (9,000 sq mi)[1] (146th)
• Water (%)
0.09 (20 km² / 7.7 sq mi)
Population
• 2020 estimate
921,804
• Density
37.2/km2 (96.3/sq mi) (168th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$3.974 billion[2] • Per capita$3,788[2]
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.187 billion[2] • Per capita$2,084[2]
Gini (2015)40.0[3]
medium
HDI (2018) 0.495[4]
low · 171st
CurrencyDjiboutian franc (DJF)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+253
ISO 3166 codeDJ
Internet TLD.dj

Djibouti (officially called the Republic of Djibouti) is a country on the eastern coast of Africa. The capital city is also called Djibouti.

Djibouti gained its independence from France on June 27, 1977. The country was created out of the French Somaliland (later called the French Territory of the Afars and Issas), which was created in the 1800s as a result of French colonialism in Africa.

In 2020, about 920,000 people lived there. It is one of the least populous countries in Africa.[5] Two ethnic groups, the Somali and the Afar people, account for most of the people living in the country.

Djibouti joined the United Nations on September 20, 1977.[6][7] It is also a member of the Arab League, as well as the African Union and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD).

## History

The history of Djibouti goes back thousands of years when it was part of the Sabean Empire (Ethiopia) to a time when Djiboutians traded hides and skins for the perfumes and spices of ancient Egypt, Pakistan, and China. Through close contacts with the Arabian peninsula for more than 1,000 years, the Somali and Afar tribes in this region became among the first on the African continent to accept Islam. Djibouti is a Muslim country which regularly takes part in Islamic as well as Arab meetings.

The country is close to a narrow part of the Red Sea so it is considered an important area from a military viewpoint.

## Geography

Djibouti is near to the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Awdal of Somalia in the southeast. The remainder of the border is formed by the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden at the east.

In the Great Rift Valley the rift between the African Plate and the Somali Plate meet the Arabian Plate. This makes a geologic tripoint[8] that is the lowest place in Africa.

Djibouti has eight mountain ranges with peaks of over 1,000 m (3,281 ft).[9] The Mousa Ali range is the country's highest mountain range.

The Grand Bara desert covers parts of southern Djibouti.

Most species of wildlife are found in the northern part of the country, in the ecosystem of the Day Forest National Park. This forest area is the main habitat of the endangered and endemic Djibouti francolin (a bird).

A map of Djibouti's regions.

Djibouti is divided into six administrative regions, with Djibouti city representing one of the official regions. It is further subdivided into twenty districts.

Regions of Djibouti
Region Area (km2) Population (2010) Capital
Ali Sabieh 2,200 71,640 Ali Sabieh
Arta 1,800 40,163 Arta
Dikhil 7,200 83,409 Dikhil
Djibouti 200 529,900 (2015 est.) Djibouti City
Obock 4,700 36,083 Obock

## Religion

The people of Djibouti are mostly Muslim. Islam is observed by 94% of Djibouti's population (about 740,000) (2010 estimate). The remaining six percent follow Christianity.

Religion in Djibouti
religion percent
Islam

94%
Christianity

6%

The Republic of Djibouti names Islam as the only state religion. The Constitution of 1992 provides for the equality of citizens of all faiths as well as the freedom to practise any religion.

## Sports

Association football is the most popular sport in Djibouti. The country became a member of FIFA in 1994.[10] They have only played in qualifying rounds for both the African Cup of Nations and FIFA World Cup.

## Transportation

The country is linked to Ethiopia by way of the Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway.

## References

1. "Djibouti". The World Factbook. CIA. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
2. Selima., Jāhāna (2015). Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. p. 232. . . http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2015_human_development_report.pdf. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
3. "Human Development Report 2019" (in en) (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
4. "World Bank country data Djibouti (2009) (number rounded)". Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2011-04-27.
5. "Today in Djibouti History". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2011-04-27.
6. "United Nations member states". Un.org. Retrieved 2011-04-27.
7. Manighetti, Isabelle; Tapponnier, Paul; Courtillot, Vincent; Gruszow, Sylvie; Gillot, Pierre-Yves (1997). "Propagation of rifting along the Arabia‐Somalia plate boundary: The gulfs of Aden and Tadjoura". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 102: 2681–2710. .
8. "Highest Mountains Djibouti". GeoNames. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
9. "Teams - Djibouti". FIFA. Retrieved 17 December 2016.