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Spanish Civil War



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Oak of Guernica

The Spanish Civil War (18 July 1936 – 1 April 1939) was a war in which General Francisco Franco and his troops successfully took control of Spain. Many different groups worked together to help the government, the Spanish Republic, to stop him, including socialists, communists, anarchists, and other leftist groups. The governments of Germany and Italy provided troops and supplies for Franco, and the communist Soviet Union sold the Republican forces weapons.

Many people from other countries volunteered to fight against Franco, sometimes against the orders of their own countries, including people from the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Germany, and Italy. They formed groups known as the International Brigades.

The war ended on 1 April 1939, when the last Republican troops surrendered. Franco ruled Spain until he died in 1975.

location of Guernica

Half-a-million people died in the war, and many atrocities were committed by both sides. The most famous atrocity was the bombing of Guernica. On April 26, 1937, the city was bombed by Legion Condor, supported Germany. It was the first time that an air bombing caused so many civilian casualties. The bombing was reported all over the world in newspapers and made people aware of the German involvement.

Related pages

General map of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).

     Initial Nationalist zone — July 1936      Nationalist advance until September 1936      Nationalist advance until October 1937      Nationalist advance until November 1938      Nationalist advance until February 1939      Last area under Republican control Solid blue.png Main Nationalist centres
Red-square.gif Main Republican centres

Panzer aus Zusatzzeichen 1049-12.svg Land battles
Vattenfall.svg Naval battles
Icon vojn new.png Bombed cities
City locator 4.svg Concentration camps
Gatunek trujący.svg Massacres
Red dot.svg Refugee camps