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|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1220s 1230s 1240s – 1250s – 1260s 1270s 1280s|
|Years:||1247 1248 1249 – 1250 – 1251 1252 1253|
- December 13 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies
- King Afonso III of Portugal captures the Algarve from the Moors.
- Valdemar, becomes King of Sweden.
- University of Valladolid is founded in Spain.
- The Rialto Bridge in Venice, Italy is changes from a pontoon bridge to a permanent, raised wooden bridge.
- Vincent of Beauvais completes his encyclopedic work, The Greater Mirror.
- The Parlement law courts of ancien régime France are created.
- A sickness breaks out in the city Naples (In what is now Italy), called the Naple's Plague
- July 3 – Louis IX of France is captured by Baibars' Mamluk army at the Battle of Fariskur while he is in Egypt at the Seventh Crusade.
- The Bahri dynasty of Mamluks seize power in Egypt.
- The Walayta state is founded in present-day Ethiopia (see Rulers of Walayta)
- Pietro d'Abano, Italian physician, philosopher and astrologer (died 1316)
- Guido Cavalcanti, Italian poet (died 1300)
- Dmitry of Pereslavl, Grand-duke of Vladimir-Suzdal (d. 1294)
- Pierre Dubois, French publicist (approximate date; died c. 1312)
- Moses de Leon, compiler of the Zohar (approximate date; died 1305)
- Giovanni Pisano, Italian sculptor (approximate date; died 1314)
- February 2 – King Eric XI of Sweden
- February 8 – Robert I of Artois, French crusader (killed in battle) (born 1216)
- February 8 – William II Longespee, English crusader
- June 18 – Teresa of Portugal
- August 9 – King Eric IV of Denmark (born 1216)
- October 4 – Herman VI, Margrave of Baden
- December 13 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (born 1194)
- Leonardo of Pisa, Italian mathematician
- Matej Ninoslav, Croatian ban
Eras and population estimates
The population of the world in 1250 was around 400 to 416 million people.