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Sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis cultivar)
Scientific classification
Species and hybrids

Ancestral species:
Citrus maximaPomelo
Citrus medicaCitron
Citrus reticulataMandarin orange
Citrus micrantha – a papeda
Citrus hystrixKaffir lime
Citrus cavaleriei - Ichang papeda
Citrus japonica - Kumquat

Important hybrids:
Citrus × aurantiifoliaKey lime
Citrus × aurantiumBitter orange
Citrus × latifoliaPersian lime
Citrus × limonLemon
Citrus × limoniaRangpur
Citrus × paradisiGrapefruit
Citrus × sinensisSweet orange
Citrus × tangerinaTangerine
See also below for other species and hybrids.



Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits. The genus Citrus is native to South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Australia. For thousands of years, people in these areas grew citrus plants. Citrus reached Micronesia and Polynesia with the Austronesian expansion around 3000-1500 BCE. It reached the Middle East and Mediterranean around 1200 BCE, and then Europe.[1][2][3][4]

Citrus fruits include oranges, lemons, grapefruits, limes, citrons, pomelos, and kumquats. See List of citrus fruits.

A citrus plant growing in a corner of a garden in Imphal.


  1. "Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus". Nature 554 (7692): 311–316. February 2018. doi:10.1038/nature25447 . PMID 29414943 . 
  2. Fuller, Dorian Q.; Castillo, Cristina; Kingwell-Banham, Eleanor; Qin, Ling; Weisskopf, Alison (2017). "Charred pomelo peel, historical linguistics and other tree crops: approaches to framing the historical context of early Citrus cultivation in East, South and Southeast Asia". In Zech-Matterne, Véronique; Fiorentino, Girolamo. AGRUMED: Archaeology and history of citrus fruit in the Mediterranean. Publications du Centre Jean Bérard. pp. 29–48. doi:10.4000/books.pcjb.2107 . ISBN 9782918887775 . 
  3. Zech-Matterne, Véronique; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Coubray, Sylvie; Luro, François (2017). "Introduction". In Zech-Matterne, Véronique; Fiorentino, Girolamo. AGRUMED: Archaeology and history of citrus fruit in the Mediterranean: Acclimatization, diversification, uses. Publications du Centre Jean Bérard. ISBN 9782918887775 . 
  4. Langgut, Dafna (June 2017). "The Citrus Route Revealed: From Southeast Asia into the Mediterranean". HortScience 52 (6): 814–822. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI11023-16 .