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Duke of Normandy
The title Duke of Normandy was given to the rulers of the duchy of Normandy.[a] This fief was created in 911 by Charles the Simple King of France for Rollo, a leader of Northmen. In 1066 the seventh duke, William II, became King William I of England.[b] The title of Duke of Normandy was held by the Kings of England until Henry III gave up the title by treaty in 1259. King John had lost mainland Normandy in 1204, and kept only the Channel Islands. Today the Channel Islands are a British Crown dependency.
In 1660 when King Charles II was restored to the throne, the King of France, Louis XIV, created Charles' brother James Duke of Normandy, probably as a show of support for monarchy and to stop Charles claiming the title himself.
Early Dukes of Normandy (911-1204)
House of Normandy
- Rollo 911-928
- William I Longsword 928-942
- Richard I 942-997
- Richard II the Good 996-1026
- Richard III 1026–1027
- Robert I The Magnificent 1027-1035
- William the Conqueror* 1035-1087 (William II as Duke of Normandy, William I as King of England)
- Robert II Curthose 1087-1106
- Henry I Beauclerk* 1106-1135
- William III Atheling (Under his father, Henry I)
- Stephen of Blois* 1135-1144 (usurped from Empress Matilda)
House of Plantagenet
- Geoffrey Plantagenet 1144-1150 (jure uxoris)
- Henry II* 1150-1189
- Henry the Young King* as junior duke 1170–1183
- Richard IV Lionheart* 1189-1199
- John Lackland* 1199-1216, lost mainland Normandy in 1204.
- Henry III* 1216–1259, renounced mainland Normandy and the ducal title by Treaty of Paris (1259).
- This is a title of convenience used by historians. The first leaders of Normandy used the title count or marquis. It was not until the middle of the eleventh century that the counts of Normandy called themselves Dukes.
- Historians call him William II as he was the second 'Duke' of Normandy named William; William I of England as he was the first English king named William. Ordinal numbers after names are almost always assigned by later historians to tell one of the same name and title from another—usually in the same family.
- François Neveux, The Normans; The Conquests that Changed the Face of Europe, trans. Howard Curtis (London: Constable & Robinson Ltd., 2008), p. 69
- David C. Douglas, William the Conqueror; The Norman Impact upon England (Berkeley; Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1964), p. 16
- John Le Patourel, Feudal empires: Norman and Plantagenet (London: Hambledon Press, 1984), p. 200
- W L Warren, King John (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), p. 99
- The World Factbook 2010, prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc., 2010), p. 327