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Geometry is a kind of mathematics that studies the size, shapes, and positions of things. There are flat (2D) shapes and solid (3D) shapes in geometry. Squares, circles and triangles are some of the simplest shapes in flat geometry. Cubes, cylinders, cones and spheres are simple shapes in solid geometry.


Geometry can be used to measure the area and perimeter of a flat shape. It can also be used to measure a solid shape's volume and surface area.

Geometry can be used to measure many things by seeing them as made of geometrical shapes. For example, geometry can help people find:


Geometry began as the art of measuring the shape of land so that it could be shared fairly between people. It means to measure the land. It has grown from this to become one of the most important parts of mathematics. The Greek mathematician Euclid wrote the first book about geometry. Geometry is one of the oldest branches of mathematics.


Geometry starts with a few simple ideas that are thought to be true, called axioms. Such as:

  • A straight line is the shortest distance between two points. For example, Sophie pulls a piece of string from one point to another point. A straight line between the two points will follow the path of the tight string.
  • A plane is a flat surface that does not stop in any direction. For example imagine a wall, but extending in all directions infinitely.

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