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Hakuchi (白雉) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name") after the Taika era and before Shuchō in 686. This period started in February 650 and ended in December 654. The reigning emperor was Kōtoku-tennō (孝徳天皇).
In 650 (Taika 6, The daimyo of Nagato Province brought a white pheasant to the court as a gift for the emperor. It was considered to be a good omen, and the emperor caused the nengō to be changed to Hakuchi (meaning "white pheasant").
|Timelines of early Japanese nengō and Imperial reign dates|
ImageSize = width:600 height:200 PlotArea = width:460 height:109 left:80 bottom:71 AlignBars = justify
id:nengo value:rgb(0.85,0.85,1) legend:Nengō id:reign value:rgb(0.95,0.95,0) legend:Reigns id:black value:black id:canvas value:gray(0.98)
BackgroundColors = canvas:canvas
Period = from:644 till:708 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:645 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:645
bar:nengo text: bar:reign text:
align:center textcolor:black fontsize:S mark:(line,black) width:25 shift:(0,-5)
bar:nengo color:nengo from:645.8 till:650.2 text:"Taika" shift:(1,3) from:650.2 till:654.12 text:"Hakuchi" shift:(11,0)
from:686.6 till:686.9 text:Shuchō
bar:reign color:reign from:645 till:654 text:Kōtoku from:654 till:661 text:Saimei from:661 till:671 text:Tenji from:671 till:672 text:Kōbun from:672 till:686 text:Temmu from:686 till:697 text:Jitō from:697 till:707 text:Mommu
The system of Japanese era names was not the same as Imperial reign dates.
Events of the Hakuchi era
- 650 (Hakuchi 1): Kōtoku commanded that all prisoners were to be granted liberty throughout the country.
- 654 (Hakuchi 5, 1st month): A great number of rats moved into Yamato Province; and this was construed as a sign that the capital should be moved.
- 654 (Hakuchi 5): Kōtoku died at the age of 59 after a reign of 5 years during Taika and 5 years during Hakuchi.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Hakuchi" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 280.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, pp. 47-50.
- Brown, Delmer et al.. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 267.
- Titsingh, p. 49.
- Nussbaum, "Taika" at p. 924.
- Bialock, David T. (2007). Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from the Chronicles of Japan to the Tale of the Heike, pp. 56-57; excerpt at p. 57, "Whether the era name of Taika and Hakuchi are viewed as evidence of an actual precedent set by Kōtoku or as the work of chroniclers belonging to a later reign around the time of Nihon Shoki 's editing, the practice of assigning era names inaugurated a new phase in the consolidation of the court's expanding political power."
- Titsingh, p. 50; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 133; Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), 孝徳天皇 (36); retrieved 2012-6-13.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō: