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Taika (era)



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Taika (大化?) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name"). It was the first nengō and the Hakuchi was the second. This period started in August 645 and ended in February 650.[1] During this time, the emperor was Kōtoku-tennō (孝徳天皇?).[2]

History

The system of nengō mirrored the Chinese system of eras (nianhao).[1] The use of nengō marked a new phase in the history of the Imperial court. It became an example of growth in political power.[3]

Timeline

Timelines of early Japanese nengō and Imperial reign dates
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 id:nengo value:rgb(0.85,0.85,1) legend:Nengō
 id:reign value:rgb(0.95,0.95,0) legend:Reigns

 id:black value:black
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Period = from:644 till:708 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:645 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:645

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 bar:nengo text:
 bar:reign text:

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 align:center textcolor:black fontsize:S mark:(line,black) width:25 shift:(0,-5)
 bar:nengo color:nengo
 from:645.8 till:650.2 text:"Taika" shift:(1,3)
 from:650.2 till:654.12 text:"Hakuchi" shift:(11,0)
 from:686.6 till:686.9 text:Shuchō
 from:701.3 till:704.5 text:"Taihō" shift:(4,3)
 from:704.5 till:708 text:"Keiun" shift:(9,0)
 bar:reign color:reign
 from:645 till:654 text:Kōtoku
 from:654 till:661 text:Saimei
 from:661 till:671 text:Tenji
 from:671 till:672 text:Kōbun
 from:672 till:686 text:Temmu
 from:686 till:697 text:Jitō
 from:697 till:707 text:Mommu


TextData =

 fontsize:M
 pos:(10,120) text:"Kōgyoku"
 pos:(542,120) text:"Gemmei"


Legend = orientation:horizontal position:bottom

</timeline>

The system of Japanese era names was not the same as Imperial reign dates.

Events of the Taika era

  • 645 (Taika 1): Empress Kōgyoku abdicated; and her brother received the succession (senso). Soon after, Emperor Kōtoku's new role as monarch was confirmed by ceremonies (sokui).[4]
  • 645 (Taika 1): Kōtoku introduces reforms of government called Taika reform (大化の改新 Taika no kaishin?).[5] The ideas and goals of this systemic reform (律令 ritsuryō?) were written. For example, Kōtoku divided Japan into eight provinces. Government officials who were ranked in a hierarchy.[6]
  • 646 (Taika 2, 1st day of the 1st month): Kōtoku established a regular calendar for the court, with major audiences scheduled only on certain days. The emperor also ordered the creation of storehouses of goods and arsenals to serve the needs of a national army or militia.[6] The rules of etiquette and customs of the court were established.[8]
  • 649 (Taika 5): A new system of government which was composed of eight ministries and 100 bureaus (hasshō hyakkan).[9]
  • 650 (Taika 6): The daimyo of Nagato Province brought a white pheasant to the court as a gift for the emperor. This white pheasant was then construed as a good omen. The emperor caused the nengō to be changed to Hakuchi (meaning "white pheasant").[10]

Related pages

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Taika" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 924.
  2. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 47-49; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 266-267; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 132-33.
  3. Bialock, David T. (2007). Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from the Chronicles of Japan to the Tale of the Heike, pp. 56-57; excerpt at p. 57, "Whether the era name of Taika and Hakuchi are viewed as evidence of an actual precedent set by Kōtoku or as the work of chroniclers belonging to a later reign around the time of Nihon Shoki 's editing, the practice of assigning era names inaugurated a new phase in the consolidation of the court's expanding political power."
  4. Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2012-5-22.
  5. Nussbaum, "Taika no kaishin" at p. 924.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Titsingh, 48.
  7. Brown, p. 266; Osaka City website: Archived 2009-03-06 at the Wayback Machine Osaka, history Archived 2007-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  8. Titsingh, p. 49; Brown, p. 266.
  9. Titsingh, 49; Varley, p. 133;
  10. Titsingh, 49.

Other websites


Taika 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th
Gregorian 645 646 647 648 649 650
Preceded by:
——
Era or nengō:
Taika
Succeeded by:
Hakuchi
Preceded by:
Kōgyoku period
642—645
Imperial reign:
Kōtoku period
645—654
Succeeded by:
——