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Taika (大化) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name"). It was the first nengō and the Hakuchi was the second. This period started in August 645 and ended in February 650. During this time, the emperor was Kōtoku-tennō (孝徳天皇).
|Timelines of early Japanese nengō and Imperial reign dates|
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id:nengo value:rgb(0.85,0.85,1) legend:Nengō id:reign value:rgb(0.95,0.95,0) legend:Reigns id:black value:black id:canvas value:gray(0.98)
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Period = from:644 till:708 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:645 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:645
bar:nengo text: bar:reign text:
align:center textcolor:black fontsize:S mark:(line,black) width:25 shift:(0,-5)
bar:nengo color:nengo from:645.8 till:650.2 text:"Taika" shift:(1,3) from:650.2 till:654.12 text:"Hakuchi" shift:(11,0)
from:686.6 till:686.9 text:Shuchō
bar:reign color:reign from:645 till:654 text:Kōtoku from:654 till:661 text:Saimei from:661 till:671 text:Tenji from:671 till:672 text:Kōbun from:672 till:686 text:Temmu from:686 till:697 text:Jitō from:697 till:707 text:Mommu
The system of Japanese era names was not the same as Imperial reign dates.
Events of the Taika era
- 645 (Taika 1): Empress Kōgyoku abdicated; and her brother received the succession (senso). Soon after, Emperor Kōtoku's new role as monarch was confirmed by ceremonies (sokui).
- 645 (Taika 1): Kōtoku introduces reforms of government called Taika reform (大化の改新 Taika no kaishin ). The ideas and goals of this systemic reform (律令 ritsuryō) were written. For example, Kōtoku divided Japan into eight provinces. Government officials who were ranked in a hierarchy.
- 645 (Taika 1): The capital of Japan is moved from Asuka to Naniwa in Settsu Province. The name of Kōtoku's palace was Toyosaki-no-Miya.
- 646 (Taika 2, 1st day of the 1st month): Kōtoku established a regular calendar for the court, with major audiences scheduled only on certain days. The emperor also ordered the creation of storehouses of goods and arsenals to serve the needs of a national army or militia. The rules of etiquette and customs of the court were established.
- 649 (Taika 5): A new system of government which was composed of eight ministries and 100 bureaus (hasshō hyakkan).
- 650 (Taika 6): The daimyo of Nagato Province brought a white pheasant to the court as a gift for the emperor. This white pheasant was then construed as a good omen. The emperor caused the nengō to be changed to Hakuchi (meaning "white pheasant").
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Taika" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 924.
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 47-49; Brown, Delmer et al. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 266-267; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. p. 132-33.
- Bialock, David T. (2007). Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from the Chronicles of Japan to the Tale of the Heike, pp. 56-57; excerpt at p. 57, "Whether the era name of Taika and Hakuchi are viewed as evidence of an actual precedent set by Kōtoku or as the work of chroniclers belonging to a later reign around the time of Nihon Shoki 's editing, the practice of assigning era names inaugurated a new phase in the consolidation of the court's expanding political power."
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2012-5-22.
- Nussbaum, "Taika no kaishin" at p. 924.
- Titsingh, 48.
- Brown, p. 266; Osaka City website: Osaka, history
- Titsingh, p. 49; Brown, p. 266.
- Titsingh, 49; Varley, p. 133;
- Titsingh, 49.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
|Era or nengō: