kidzsearch.com > wiki   Explore:web images videos games  

Japanese era name




KidzSearch Safe Wikipedia for Kids.
(Redirected from List of Japanese eras)
Jump to: navigation, search

The Japanese era name (年号 nengō?, "year name"), also known as gengō (元号?), is a traditional calendar system which began during the reign of Emperor Kōtoku in the 7th century. This calendar has been in use in Japan since the beginning of the 8th century.[1]

The historical Japanese calendar system defines and parses time in terms of ordinal numbers.

Usage

Each new Japanese era (年号, nengō,?, lit. "year name") was usually started soon after the beginning of the reign of a new emperor. Era names were also changed due to other events.[2] Starting in the reign of Emperor Yōzei, the tradition of naming eras because of good omens changed. Instead, the name of an era might be chosen to ward off something bad.[3]

The first day of the first year of a nengō (元年 gannen?) started whenever the emperor decided. This first year continued until the next lunar new year, which is understood to be the start of the nengō's second year.[4]

To change a Japanese year to a Western or Gregorian calendar year, find the first year of the nengō (see list below). When found, subtract 1, and add the number of the Japanese year. For example, the 23rd year of the Shōwa period (Shōwa 23) was 1948:

ILLUSTRATION: 1926 − 1 = 1925 ..., and then 1925 + 23 = 1948 ... or Shōwa 23.
CONVERSION TABLE: Gregorian calendar years / nengō
Year 1 Kanji Romanization Meaning Notes
Asuka period
645 大化 Taika "Great Reform"[5] Emperor Kōtoku, 645-654.[6] Also known as "Great Development"[7]
650 白雉 Hakuchi "White Pheasant"[8]
654 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 654-686
686 朱鳥 Shuchō "Red bird of the south"[9] also Suchō, Akamitori or Akamidori; Emperor Temmu, 672-686.[10]
686 Naming of eras temporarily discontinued from 686-701
701 大宝 Taihō "Great Law"[5] or "Great Treasure"[11] also Daihō; Emperor Mommu, 697-707.[12]
704 慶雲 Keiun - also Kyōun; Empress Gemmei, 707-715.[13]
708 和銅 Wadō "Japanese Copper"[14]
Nara period
715 霊亀 Reiki - Empress Genshō, 715-724.[15]
717 養老 Yōrō -
724 神亀 Jinki "Sacred Tortoise"[3] also Shinki; Emperor Shōmu, 724-749.[16]
729 天平 Tenpyō "Heavenly Peace"[17] also Tenbyō or Tenhei
749 天平感宝 Tenpyō-kanpō "Gratitude for Treasure"[18] also Tenbyō-kanpō
749 天平勝宝 Tenpyō-shōhō "Heavenly Peace and Victorious Buddhism"[19] also Tenbyō-shōbō or Tenpei-shōhō; Empress Kōken, 749-758.[20]
757 天平宝字 Tenpyō-hōji "Lucky Inscription"[21] also Tenbyō-hōji or Tenpei-hōji; Emperor Junnin, 758-764;[22] Empress Shōtoku, 764-770.[23]
765 天平神護 Tenpyō-jingo "Divine Protection"[24] also Tenbyō-jingo or Tenhei-jingo
767 神護景雲 Jingo-keiun "Divine Merit"[25]
770 宝亀 Hōki - Emperor Kōnin, 770-781.[26]
781 天応 Ten'ō - Emperor Kammu, 781-806.[27]
782 延暦 Enryaku "Prolonged Succession"[28]
Heian period
806 大同 Daidō - Emperor Heizei, 806-809;[29] Emperor Saga, 809-823.[30]
810 弘仁 Kōnin - Emperor Junna, 823-833.[31]
824 天長 Tenchō - Emperor Ninmyō, 833-850.[32]
834 承和 Jōwa "Flourishing Treasure"[33] also Shōwa or Sōwa
848 嘉祥 Kashō "Good Augury"[34] also Kajō; Emperor Montoku, 850-858.[35]
851 仁寿 Ninju -
854 斉衡 Saikō -
857 天安 Ten'an - also Tennan; Emperor Seiwa, 858-876.[36]
859 貞観 Jōgan - Emperor Yōzei, 876-884.[37]
877 元慶 Gangyō - also Gankyō or Genkei; Emperor Kōkō, 884-887.[38]
885 仁和 Ninna - also Ninwa; Emperor Uda, 887-897.[39]
889 寛平 Kanpyō "Liberal Peace"[40] also Kanpei or Kanbyō or Kanbei or Kanhei; Emperor Daigo, 887-930.[41]
898 昌泰 Shōtai -
901 延喜 Engi -
923 延長 Enchō - Emperor Suzaku, 930-946.[42]
931 承平 Jōhei - also Shōhei
938 天慶 Tengyō "Heavenly Felicitation"[43] also Tenkei or Tenkyō; Emperor Murakami, 946-967.[44]
947 天暦 Tenryaku - also Tenreki
957 天徳 Tentoku -
961 応和 Ōwa -
964 康保 Kōhō - Emperor Reizei, 967-969.[45]
968 安和 Anna - also Anwa; Emperor En'yū, 969-984.[46]
970 天禄 Tenroku -
973 天延 Ten'en -
976 貞元 Jōgen - also Teigen
978 天元 Tengen
983 永観 Eikan - also Yōkan; Emperor Kazan, 984-986.[47]
985 寛和 Kanna - also Kanwa; Emperor Ichijō, 986-1011.[48]
987 永延 Eien - also Yōen
988 永祚 Eiso - also Yōso
990 正暦 Shōryaku - also Jōryaku or Shōreki
995 長徳 Chōtoku -
999 長保 Chōhō -
1004 寛弘 Kankō - Emperor Sanjō, 1011–1016.[49]
1012 長和 Chōwa - Emperor Go-Ichijō, 1016–1036.[50]
1017 寛仁 Kannin -
1021 治安 Jian - also Chian
1024 万寿 Manju -
1028 長元 Chōgen - Emperor Go-Suzaku, 1036–1045.[51]
1037 長暦 Chōryaku - also Chōreki
1040 長久 Chōkyū -
1044 寛徳 Kantoku - Emperor Go-Reizei, 1045–1068.[52]
1046 永承 Eishō - also Eijō or Yōjō
1053 天喜 Tengi - also Tenki
1058 康平 Kōhei -
1065 治暦 Jiryaku - also Chiryaku
1069 延久 Enkyū - Emperor Go-Sanjō, 1068–1073.[53]
1074 承保 Jōhō - also Shōhō or Shōho; Emperor Shirakawa, 1073–1086.[54]
1077 承暦 Jōryaku - also Shōryaku or Shōreki
1081 永保 Eihō - also Yōhō
1084 応徳 Ōtoku -
1087 寛治 Kanji - Emperor Horikawa, 1087–1107.[55]
1094 嘉保 Kahō -
1096 永長 Eichō - also Yōchō
1097 承徳 Jōtoku - also Shōtoku
1099 康和 Kōwa -
1104 長治 Chōji -
1106 嘉承 Kashō - also Kajō or Kasō; Emperor Toba, 1107–1123.[56]
1108 天仁 Tennin -
1110 天永 Ten'ei - also Ten'yō
1113 永久 Eikyū - also Yōkyū
1118 元永 Gen'ei -
1120 保安 Hōan - Emperor Sutoku, 1123–1142.[57]
1124 天治 Tenji - also Tenchi
1126 大治 Daiji - also Taiji
1131 天承 Tenshō - also Tenjō
1132 長承 Chōshō - also Chōjō
1135 保延 Hōen -
1141 永治 Eiji -
1142 康治 Kōji - Emperor Konoe, 1142–1155.[58]
1144 天養 Ten'yō - also Tennyō
1145 久安 Kyūan -
1151 仁平 Ninpei - also Ninpyō or Ninbyō or Ninhyō or Ninhei
1154 久寿 Kyūju - Emperor Go-Shirakawa, 1155–1158.[59]
1156 保元 Hōgen - also Hogen; Emperor Nijō, 1158–1165.[60]
1159 平治 Heiji - also Byōji
1160 永暦 Eiryaku "Everlasting Happiness"[61] also Yōryaku
1161 応保 Ōhō -
1163 長寛 Chōkan - also Chōgan
1165 永万 Eiman - also Yōman; Emperor Rokujō, 1165–1168.[62]
1166 仁安 Nin'an - also Ninnan; Emperor Takakura, 1168–1180.[62]
1169 嘉応 Kaō -
1171 承安 Jōan - also Shōan
1175 安元 Angen -
1177 治承 Jishō - also Jijō or Chishō; Emperor Antoku, 1180–1185.[63]
1181 養和 Yōwa -
1182 寿永 Juei - Emperor Go-Toba, 1183–1198.[64]
1184 元暦 Genryaku -
1185 文治 Bunji - also Monchi
1190 建久 Kenkyū - Emperor Tsuchimikado, 1198–1210.[65]
Kamakura period
1199 正治 Shōji -
1201 建仁 Kennin -
1204 元久 Genkyū -
1206 建永 Ken'ei - also Ken'yō
1207 承元 Jōgen - also Shōgen; Emperor Juntoku, 1210–1221.[66]
1211 建暦 Kenryaku -
1213 建保 Kenpō - also Kenhō
1219 承久 Jōkyū - also Shōkyū; Emperor Chūkyō, 1221;.[67] Emperor Go-Horikawa, 1221–1232.[68]
1222 貞応 Jōō - also Teiō
1224 元仁 Gennin -
1225 嘉禄 Karoku -
1227 安貞 Antei - also Anjō
1229 寛喜 Kangi - also Kanki
1232 貞永 Jōei - also Teiei; Emperor Shijō, 1232–1242.[69]
1233 天福 Tenpuku - also Tenfuku
1234 文暦 Bunryaku - also Monryaku or Monreki
1235 嘉禎 Katei -
1238 暦仁 Ryakunin - also Rekinin
1239 延応 En'ō - also Ennō
1240 仁治 Ninji - also Ninchi; Emperor Go-Saga, 1242–1246.[70]
1243 寛元 Kangen - Emperor Go-Fukakusa, 1246–1260.[71]
1247 宝治 Hōji -
1249 建長 Kenchō -
1256 康元 Kōgen - Emperor Kameyama, 1260–1274.[72]
1257 正嘉 Shōka -
1259 正元 Shōgen -
1260 文応 Bun'ō - also Bunnō
1261 弘長 Kōchō -
1264 文永 Bun'ei - Emperor Go-Uda, 1274–1287.[73]
1275 建治 Kenji -
1278 弘安 Kōan ... Emperor Fushimi, 1287–1298.[74]
1288 正応 Shōō - also Shō-ō
1293 永仁 Einin - Emperor Go-Fushimi, 1298–1301.[75]
1299 正安 Shōan - Emperor Go-Nijō, 1301–1308.[76]
1302 乾元 Kengen -
1303 嘉元 Kagen ...
1306 徳治 Tokuji -
1308 延慶 Enkyō "Becoming Prolonged"[77] also Engyō or Enkei; Emperor Hanazono, 1308–1318.[78]
1311 応長 Ōchō -
1312 正和 Shōwa -
1317 文保 Bunpō - also Bunhō; Emperor Go-Daigo, 1318–1339.[79]
1319 元応 Gen'ō - also Gennō
1321 元亨 Genkyō -
1324 正中 Shōchū -
1326 嘉暦 Karyaku -
1329 元徳 Gentoku -
1331 元弘 Genkō -
1334 建武 Kenmu - also Kenbu
Nanboku-chō period
*Nanboku-chō Southern Court
1336 延元 Engen ...
1340 興国 Kōkoku ...
1346 正平 Shōhei ...
1370 建徳 Kentoku ...
1372 文中 Bunchū ...
1375 天授 Tenju ...
1381 弘和 Kōwa ...
1384 元中 Genchū ... Genchū 9 becomes Meitoku 3 in post Nanboku-chō reunification
*Nanboku-chō Northern Court
1332 正慶 Shōkyō ... also Shōkei
1333 Northern court not in existence between 1333 and 1336; no era names apply from 1333 to 1338.
1338 暦応 Ryakuō ... also Rekiō
1342 康永 Kōei ...
1345 貞和 Jōwa ... also Teiwa
1350 観応 Kannō ... also Kan'ō
1352 文和 Bunna ... also Bunwa
1356 延文 Enbun ...
1361 康安 Kōan ...
1362 貞治 Jōji ... also Teiji
1368 応安 Ōan ...
1375 永和 Eiwa ...
1379 康暦 Kōryaku ...
1381 永徳 Eitoku ...
1384 至徳 Shitoku ... also Meitoku
1387 嘉慶 Kakei ... also Kakyō
1389 康応 Kōō ...
1390 明徳 Meitoku - Meitoku 3 replaces Genchū 9 in post-Nanboku-chō reunification
Muromachi period
1394 応永 Ōei ... Emperor Shōkō, 1412–1428.[80]
1428 正長 Shōchō ... Emperor Go-Hanazono, 1428–1464.[81]
1429 永享 Eikyō ... also Eikō
1441 嘉吉 Kakitsu ... also Kakichi
1444 文安 Bun'an ... also Bunnan
1449 宝徳 Hōtoku ...
1452 享徳 Kyōtoku ...
1455 康正 Kōshō ...
1457 長禄 Chōroku ...
1460 寛正 Kanshō ... Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado, 1464–1500.[82]
1466 文正 Bunshō ... also Monshō
1467 応仁 Ōnin ...
1469 文明 Bunmei ...
1487 長享 Chōkyō ...
1489 延徳 Entoku ...
1492 明応 Meiō ... Emperor Go-Kashiwabara, 1500–1526.[83]
1501 文亀 Bunki ...
1504 永正 Eishō ...
1521 大永 Daiei ... Emperor Go-Nara, 1526–1557.[84]
1528 享禄 Kyōroku -
1532 天文 Tenbun - also Tenmon
1555 弘治 Kōji - Emperor Ōgimachi, 1557–1586.[85]
1558 永禄 Eiroku -
1570 元亀 Genki -
1573 天正 Tenshō "Heavenly Virtue"[86] Emperor Go-Yōzei, 1586–1611.[87]
1592 文禄 Bunroku "Enlightened Benevolence"[86]
1596 慶長 Keichō "Eternal Jubilance"[86] also Kyōchō; Emperor Go-Mizunoo, 1611–1629.[88]
Edo period
1615 元和 Genna "Commencement of Concord"[11] also Genwa
1624 寛永 Kan'ei "Permanent Liberality"[89] Empress Meishō, 1629–1643;[90] Emperor Go-Kōmyō, 1643–1654.[91]
1644 正保 Shōhō - -
1648 慶安 Keian also Kyōan
1652 承応 Jōō - also Shōō; Emperor Go-Sai, 1655–1663.[92]
1655 明暦 Meireki - also Myōryaku or Meiryaku
1658 万治 Manji - -
1661 寛文 Kanbun - Emperor Reigen, 1663–1687.[93]
1673 延宝 Enpō - also Enhō
1681 天和 Tenna "Peace of Heaven"[94] also Tenwa
1684 貞享 Jōkyō - Emperor Higashiyama, 1687–1709.[95]
1688 元禄 Genroku "Origin of Good Fortune"[94] -
1704 宝永 Hōei - Emperor Nakamikado, 1709–1735.[96]
1711 正徳 Shōtoku "Correct Virtue"[97] Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.[98] -
1716 享保 Kyōhō - Emperor Sakuramachi, 1735–1747.[99]
1736 元文 Genbun - -
1741 寛保 Kanpō - also Kanhō
1744 延享 Enkyō - Emperor Momozono, 1747–1762.[100]
1748 寛延 Kan'en - -
1751 宝暦 Hōreki "Valuable Calendar" or "Valuable Almanac"[4] also Hōryaku; Empress Go-Sakuramachi, 1762–1771.[101]
1764 明和 Meiwa "Radiant Harmony"[102] Emperor Go-Momozono, 1771–1779.[98]
1772 安永 An'ei "Eternal Tranquility"[103] Emperor Kōkaku, 1780–1817.[104]
1781 天明 Tenmei "Heavenly Radiance"[105] also a "popular expression meaning 'difficulty'"[105]
1789 寛政 Kansei "Lenient Government" [97] from Sui Dynasty phrase, "When conducting government, do so with lenience"[106]
1801 享和 Kyōwa - -
1804 文化 Bunka - Emperor Ninkō, 1817–1846.[107]
1818 文政 Bunsei - also Monsei
1830 天保 Tenpō "Heavenly Protection"[108] also Tenhō; name links with Tenna and Kyōhō[109]
1844 弘化 Kōka - Emperor Kōmei, 1846–1867.
1848 嘉永 Kaei "Celebration of Eternity"[110] or "Eternal Felicity"[111]
1854 安政 Ansei "Tranquil Government"[111]
1860 万延 Man'en "Ten Thousand Years Prolonged"[112]
1861 文久 Bunkyū -
1864 元治 Genji -
1865 慶応 Keiō "Joyous Concord"[113]
Modern Japan
1868 明治 Meiji "Enlightened Rule"[114] Emperor Meiji, 1868–1912. Also known as "Enlightened Government" or "Brilliant Rule"[113]
1912 大正 Taishō "Great Justice"[115] Emperor Taishō, 1912–1926.[116]
1926 昭和 Shōwa "Brilliant Harmony"[114] Emperor Shōwa, 1926–1989.[116]
1989 平成 Heisei "Achieving Peace"[114] Akihito, 1989–2019.[116]
2019 令和 Reiwa "Culture is born and nurtured as people beautifully meet each other" Naruhito, 2019-present [the reigning emperor].[116]
Timeline of Japanese era names
Extended content

<timeline> Preset = TimeHorizontal_AutoPlaceBars_UnitYear ImageSize = width:1200 barincrement:25 PlotArea = left:30 right:45 bottom:40

Colors =

 id:canvas         value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97)
 id:grid1          value:gray(0.7)
 id:grid2          value:gray(0.88)
 id:white          value:rgb(0,0,0)
 id:black          value:rgb(0,0,0)
 id:eras           value:rgb(0.75,1,0.75)
 id:southern_court value:rgb(1,0.4,0.4) legend:Southern_Court
 id:northern_court value:rgb(1,0.8,0.4) legend:Northern_Court

BackgroundColors = canvas:canvas

Period = from:640 till:1350 ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:50 start:650 gridcolor:grid1 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:10 start:640 gridcolor:grid2 AlignBars = justify

BarData =

 barset:eras

PlotData =

 mark:(none,black)
 color:eras
 fontsize:S
 width:22
 barset:eras
 from:645 till:650 text:Taika
 from:650 till:654 text:Hakuchi
 from:686 till:686 text:Shuchō
 from:701 till:704 text:Taihō
 from:704 till:708 text:Keiun
 from:708 till:715 text:Wadō
 from:715 till:717 text:Reiki
 from:717 till:724 text:Yōrō
 from:724 till:729 text:Jinki
 from:729 till:749 text:Tenpyō
 barset:break
 from:749 till:749 text:Tenpyō-kanpō
 from:749 till:757 text:Tenpyō-shōhō
 from:757 till:765 text:Tenpyō-hōji
 from:765 till:767 text:Tenpyō-jingo
 from:767 till:770 text:Jingo-keiun
 from:770 till:781 text:Hōki
 from:781 till:782 text:Ten'ō
 from:782 till:806 text:Enryaku
 from:806 till:810 text:Daidō
 from:810 till:824 text:Kōnin
 from:824 till:834 text:Tenchō
 from:834 till:848 text:Jōwa
 barset:break
 from:848 till:851 text:Kajō
 from:851 till:854 text:Ninju
 from:854 till:857 text:Saikō
 from:857 till:859 text:Tennan
 from:859 till:877 text:Jōgan
 from:877 till:885 text:Gangyō
 from:885 till:889 text:Ninna
 from:889 till:898 text:Kanpyō
 from:898 till:901 text:Shōtai
 from:901 till:923 text:Engi
 from:923 till:931 text:Enchō
 from:931 till:938 text:Jōhei
 from:938 till:947 text:Tengyō
 barset:break
 from:947 till:957 text:Tenryaku
 from:957 till:961 text:Tentoku
 from:961 till:964 text:Ōwa
 from:964 till:968 text:Kōhō
 from:968 till:970 text:Anna
 from:970 till:973 text:Tenroku
 from:973 till:976 text:Ten'en
 from:976 till:978 text:Jōgen
 from:978 till:983 text:Tengen
 from:983 till:985 text:Eikan
 from:985 till:987 text:Kanna
 from:987 till:988 text:Eien
 from:988 till:990 text:Eiso
 barset:break
 from:990 till:995 text:Shōryaku
 from:995 till:999 text:Chōtoku
 from:999 till:1004 text:Chōhō
 from:1004 till:1012 text:Kankō
 from:1012 till:1017 text:Chōwa
 from:1017 till:1021 text:Kannin
 from:1021 till:1024 text:Jian
 from:1024 till:1028 text:Manju
 from:1028 till:1037 text:Chōgen
 from:1037 till:1040 text:Chōryaku
 from:1040 till:1044 text:Chōkyū
 from:1044 till:1046 text:Kantoku
 barset:break
 from:1046 till:1053 text:Eishō
 from:1053 till:1058 text:Tengi
 from:1058 till:1065 text:Kōhei
 from:1065 till:1069 text:Jiryaku
 from:1069 till:1074 text:Enkyū
 from:1074 till:1077 text:Jōhō
 from:1077 till:1081 text:Jōryaku
 from:1081 till:1084 text:Eihō
 from:1084 till:1087 text:Ōtoku
 from:1087 till:1094 text:Kanji
 from:1094 till:1096 text:Kahō
 from:1096 till:1097 text:Eichō
 from:1097 till:1099 text:Jōtoku
 from:1099 till:1104 text:Kōwa
 from:1104 till:1106 text:Chōji
 barset:break
 from:1106 till:1108 text:Kajō
 from:1108 till:1110 text:Tennin
 from:1110 till:1113 text:Ten'ei
 from:1113 till:1118 text:Eikyū
 from:1118 till:1120 text:Gen'ei
 from:1120 till:1124 text:Hōan
 from:1124 till:1126 text:Tenji
 from:1126 till:1131 text:Daiji
 from:1131 till:1132 text:Tenshō
 from:1132 till:1135 text:Chōshō
 from:1135 till:1141 text:Hōen
 from:1141 till:1142 text:Eiji
 from:1142 till:1144 text:Kōji
 from:1144 till:1145 text:Ten'yō
 barset:break
 from:1145 till:1151 text:Kyūan
 from:1151 till:1154 text:Ninpei
 from:1154 till:1156 text:Kyūju
 from:1156 till:1159 text:Hōgen
 from:1159 till:1160 text:Heiji
 from:1160 till:1161 text:Eiryaku
 from:1161 till:1163 text: Ōhō
 from:1163 till:1165 text: Chōkan
 from:1165 till:1166 text:Eiman
 from:1166 till:1169 text:Ninnan
 from:1169 till:1171 text: Kaō
 from:1171 till:1175 text: Jōan
 from:1175 till:1177 text:Angen
 from:1177 till:1181 text: Jishō
 from:1181 till:1182 text: Yōwa
 from:1182 till:1184 text:Juei
 from:1184 till:1185 text:Genryaku
 from:1185 till:1190 text:Bunji
 from:1190 till:1199 text: Kenkyū
 from:1199 till:1201 text:Shōji
 barset:break
 from:1201 till:1204 text:Kennin
 from:1204 till:1206 text: Genkyū
 from:1206 till:1207 text:Ken'ei
 from:1207 till:1211 text: Jōgen
 from:1211 till:1213 text:Kenryaku
 from:1213 till:1219 text:Kenpō
 from:1219 till:1222 text: Jōkyū
 from:1222 till:1224 text:Jōō
 from:1224 till:1225 text:Gennin
 from:1225 till:1227 text:Karoku
 from:1227 till:1229 text:Antei
 from:1229 till:1232 text:Kanki
 from:1232 till:1233 text: Jōei
 from:1233 till:1234 text:Tenpuku
 from:1234 till:1235 text:Bunryaku
 from:1235 till:1238 text:Katei
 from:1238 till:1239 text:Ryakunin
 from:1239 till:1240 text:En'ō
 from:1240 till:1243 text:Ninji
 from:1243 till:1247 text:Kangen
 barset:break
 from:1247 till:1249 text: Hōji
 from:1249 till:1256 text: Kenchō
 from:1256 till:1257 text:Kōgen
 from:1257 till:1259 text: Shōka
 from:1259 till:1260 text: Shōgen
 from:1260 till:1261 text:Bun'ō
 from:1261 till:1264 text:Kōcho
 from:1264 till:1275 text:Bun'ei
 from:1275 till:1278 text:Kenji
 from:1278 till:1288 text:Kōan
 from:1288 till:1293 text:Shōō
 from:1293 till:1299 text:Einin
 from:1299 till:1302 text: Shōan
 from:1302 till:1303 text:Kengen
 from:1303 till:1306 text:Kagen
 from:1306 till:1308 text:Tokuji
 from:1308 till:1311 text:Enkei
 barset:break
 from:1311 till:1312 text: Ōchō
 from:1312 till:1317 text:Shōwa
 from:1317 till:1319 text:Bunpō
 from:1319 till:1321 text:Gen'ō
 from:1321 till:1324 text: Genkyō
 from:1324 till:1326 text:Shōchū
 from:1326 till:1329 text:Karyaku
 from:1329 till:1331 text:Gentoku
 from:1331 till:1334 text: Genkō
 from:1334 till:1336 text:Kenmu
 from:1336 till:1340 color:southern_court text:Engen
 from:1340 till:1346 color:southern_court text: Kōkoku
 from:1346 till:end color:southern_court text: Shōhei
 from:1332 till:1332 color:northern_court text:Shōkei
 from:1338 till:1342 color:northern_court text:Ryakuō
 from:1342 till:1345 color:northern_court text:Kōei
 from:1345 till:end color:northern_court text:Jōwa

TextData =

 textcolor:black fontsize:S
 pos:(30,2)  text:"produced with"
 pos:(100,2)  text:"EasyTimeline"
 pos:(620,2) text:"reference"
 pos:(667,2) text:"en:Japanese era name"

</timeline>

<timeline> Preset = TimeHorizontal_AutoPlaceBars_UnitYear ImageSize = width:1200 barincrement:25 PlotArea = left:30 right:45 bottom:40

Colors =

 id:canvas         value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97)
 id:grid1          value:gray(0.7)
 id:grid2          value:gray(0.88)
 id:white          value:rgb(0,0,0)
 id:black          value:rgb(0,0,0)
 id:eras           value:rgb(0.75,1,0.75)
 id:southern_court value:rgb(1,0.4,0.4) legend:Southern_Court
 id:northern_court value:rgb(1,0.8,0.4) legend:Northern_Court

BackgroundColors = canvas:canvas

Period = from:1340 till:2050 ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:50 start:1350 gridcolor:grid1 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:10 start:1340 gridcolor:grid2 AlignBars = justify

BarData=

 barset:eras

PlotData =

 mark:(none,black)
 color:eras
 fontsize:S
 width:22
 barset:eras
 from:1346 till:1370 color:southern_court text: Shōhei
 from:1370 till:1372 color:southern_court text:Kentoku
 from:1372 till:1375 color:southern_court text: Bunchū
 from:1375 till:1381 color:southern_court text:Tenju
 from:1381 till:1384 color:southern_court text: Kōwa
 from:1384 till:1392 color:southern_court text: Genchū
 from:1345 till:1350 color:northern_court text:Jōwa
 from:1350 till:1352 color:northern_court text:Kan'ō
 from:1352 till:1356 color:northern_court text:Bunna
 from:1356 till:1361 color:northern_court text:Enbun
 from:1361 till:1362 color:northern_court text:Kōan
 from:1362 till:1368 color:northern_court text:Jōji
 from:1368 till:1375 color:northern_court text:Ōan
 from:1375 till:1379 color:northern_court text:Eiwa
 from:1379 till:1381 color:northern_court text:Kōryaku
 from:1381 till:1384 color:northern_court text:Eitoku
 from:1384 till:1387 color:northern_court text:Shitoku
 from:1387 till:1389 color:northern_court text:Kakei
 from:1389 till:1390 color:northern_court text:Kōō
 from:1390 till:1394 color:northern_court text:Meitoku
 barset:break
 from:1394 till:1428 text:Ōei
 from:1428 till:1429 text:Shōchō
 from:1429 till:1441 text:Eikyō
 from:1441 till:1444 text:Kakitsu
 from:1444 till:1449 text:Bunnan
 from:1449 till:1452 text:Hōtoku
 from:1452 till:1455 text:Kyōtoku
 from:1455 till:1457 text:Kōshō
 from:1457 till:1460 text:Chōroku
 from:1460 till:1466 text:Kanshō
 from:1466 till:1467 text:Bunshō
 from:1467 till:1469 text:Ōnin
 from:1469 till:1487 text:Bunmei
 from:1487 till:1489 text:Chōkyō
 from:1489 till:1492 text:Entoku
 from:1492 till:1501 text:Meiō
 barset:break
 from:1501 till:1504 text:Bunki
 from:1504 till:1521 text:Eishō
 from:1521 till:1528 text:Daiei
 from:1528 till:1532 text: Kyōroku
 from:1532 till:1555 text:Tenbun
 from:1555 till:1558 text:Kōji
 from:1558 till:1570 text:Eiroku
 from:1570 till:1573 text:Genki
 from:1573 till:1592 text: Tenshō
 from:1592 till:1596 text:Bunroku
 barset:break
 from:1596 till:1615 text: Keichō
 from:1615 till:1624 text:Genna
 from:1624 till:1644 text:Kan'ei
 from:1644 till:1648 text: Shōhō
 from:1648 till:1652 text:Keian
 from:1652 till:1655 text:Jōō
 from:1655 till:1658 text:Meireki
 from:1658 till:1661 text:Manji
 from:1661 till:1673 text:Kanbun
 from:1673 till:1681 text:Enpō
 from:1681 till:1684 text:Tenna
 from:1684 till:1688 text:Jōkyō
 from:1688 till:1704 text:Genroku
 barset:break
 from:1704 till:1711 text:Hōei
 from:1711 till:1716 text:Shōtoku
 from:1716 till:1736 text:Kyōhō
 from:1736 till:1741 text:Genbun
 from:1741 till:1744 text:Kanpō
 from:1744 till:1748 text:Enkyō
 from:1748 till:1751 text:Kan'en
 from:1751 till:1764 text:Hōreki
 from:1764 till:1772 text:Meiwa
 from:1772 till:1781 text:An'ei
 from:1781 till:1789 text:Tenmei
 from:1789 till:1801 text:Kansei
 barset:break
 from:1801 till:1804 text: Kyōwa
 from:1804 till:1818 text:Bunka
 from:1818 till:1830 text:Bunsei
 from:1830 till:1844 text:Tenpō
 from:1844 till:1848 text: Kōka
 from:1848 till:1854 text:Kaei
 from:1854 till:1860 text:Ansei
 from:1860 till:1861 text: Man'en
 from:1861 till:1864 text: Bunkyū
 from:1864 till:1865 text:Genji
 from:1865 till:1868 text: Keiō
 from:1868 till:1912 text:Meiji
 barset:break
 from:1912 till:1926 text: Taishō
 from:1926 till:1989 text:Shōwa
 from:1989 till:2006 text:Heisei

TextData =

 textcolor:black fontsize:S
 pos:(30,2)  text:"produced with"
 pos:(100,2)  text:"EasyTimeline"
 pos:(620,2) text:"reference"
 pos:(667,2) text:"en:Japanese era name"

</timeline>

Related pages

References

  1. Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p.32.
  2. Kawada, Ikaku; Nakahama, Manjiro (2003). Drifting Toward the Southeast: The Story of Five Japanese Castaways : a Complete Translation of Hyoson Kiryaku (a Brief Account of Drifting Toward the Southeast) as Told to the Court of Lord Yamauchi of Tosa in 1852 by John Manjiro. Spinner Publications. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-932027-56-6 . https://books.google.com/?id=4N3aqNBINz0C&pg=PA138. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Bialock, David (2007). Eccentric Spaces, Hidden Histories: Narrative, Ritual, and Royal Authority from The Chronicles of Japan to The Tale of the Heike. Stanford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8047-6764-4 . https://books.google.com/?id=kfWvoVERWREC&pg=PA63. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1956). Kyoto: the Old Capital of Japan, 794-1869, p. 321.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Beasley, William G. (2000). The Japanese Experience: A Short History of Japan. University of California Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-520-22560-2 . https://books.google.com/?id=9AivK7yMICgC&pg=PA24. 
  6. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 47-50. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  7. Lane-Poole, Stanley; Dickins, Frederick Victor (1894). The Life of Sir Harry Parkes: Minister plenipotentiary to Japan. by F.V. Dickens. Minister plenipotentiary to China by S. Lane-Poole. Macmillian and Company. p. 461. https://books.google.com/?id=uq4JAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA97. 
  8. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 49. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  9. Bender, Ross. (2009). "The Suppresion of the Tachibana Naramaro Conspiracy," Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 37/2:224; compare mirrored full-text; retrieved 2012-10-23.
  10. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 268-269. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 63. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA63. 
  12. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 270-271. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  13. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 271. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  14. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 63. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  15. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 271-272. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  16. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 272-273. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  17. Bedini, Silvio A. (1994). The Trail of Time: Time Measurement with Incense in East Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-521-37482-8 . https://books.google.com/?id=xdVkzs6iI1YC&pg=PA85. 
  18. Seeds in the Heart: Japanese Literature from Earliest Times to the Late Sixteenth Century. Columbia University Press. 1999. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-231-11441-7 . https://books.google.com/?id=_DEwTJq3TbcC&pg=PA153. 
  19. Bowman, John Stewart (2000). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4 . https://books.google.com/?id=pg5Qi28akwEC. 
  20. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 274-275. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  21. David, Sir Percival (1932). The Shoso-in. Printed by the Eastern press, ltd.. p. 32. https://books.google.com/?id=dhdJAAAAMAAJ. 
  22. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 275. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  23. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 276. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  24. Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 46. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA46. 
  25. Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 45. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA45. 
  26. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 276-277. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  27. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 277-279. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  28. Bock, Felicia Gressitt (1985). Classical learning and taoist practices in early Japan: with a translation of Books XVI and XX of the Engi-shiki. Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-939252-13-8 . https://books.google.com/?id=oWYOAAAAIAAJ. 
  29. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 279-280. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  30. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 280-282. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  31. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 282-283. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  32. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 283-284. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  33. Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 63. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA63. 
  34. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 111. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  35. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 285-286. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  36. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 286-288. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  37. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 288-289. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  38. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 289. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  39. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 289-290. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  40. Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 71. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA71. 
  41. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 290-293. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  42. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 294-295. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  43. A Tale of Flowering Fortunes: Annals of Japanese Aristocratic Life in the Heian Period. Stanford University Press. 1980. ISBN 978-0-8047-1039-8 . https://books.google.com/?id=oWyaAAAAIAAJ. 
  44. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 295-298. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  45. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 298. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  46. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 299-300. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  47. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 300-302. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  48. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 302-307. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  49. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 307. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  50. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 307-310. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  51. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 310-311. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  52. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 311-314. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  53. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 314-315. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  54. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 315-317. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  55. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 317-320. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  56. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 320-322. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  57. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 322-324. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  58. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 324-326. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  59. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 326-327. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  60. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 327-329. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  61. Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 92. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA92. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 194. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  63. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 333-334. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  64. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 334-339. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  65. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 339-341. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  66. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 341-343. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  67. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 343-344. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  68. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 344-349. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  69. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 227. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  70. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 228-231. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  71. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 231-232. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  72. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 232-233. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  73. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 233-237. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  74. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 237-238. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  75. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 238-239. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  76. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 239. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  77. Greenwood, Ned (2011). Hachiman Taro: Firstborn of the God of War. Tate Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-61777-532-1 . https://books.google.com/?id=inKezeEVwf8C&pg=PA87. 
  78. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 239-241. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  79. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 241-269. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  80. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 327. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  81. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 331. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  82. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 352. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  83. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 364. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  84. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 372. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  85. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 382. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  86. 86.0 86.1 86.2 Watsky, Andrew Mark (2004). Chikubushima: Deploying the Sacred Arts in Momoyama Japan. University of Washington Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-295-98327-1 . https://books.google.com/?id=m7okz1DQslwC&pg=PA28. 
  87. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 402. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  88. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 410. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  89. Munro, Neil Gordon (1904). Coins of Japan. Box of curios printing and publishing Company. p. 111. https://books.google.com/?id=ASlIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA111. 
  90. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 411. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  91. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 412. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  92. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 413. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  93. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 414. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  94. 94.0 94.1 Jenkins, Donald. (1971). Ukiyo-e Prints and Paintings: the Primitive Period, 1680–1745, p. 21.
  95. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 415. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  96. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 416. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  97. 97.0 97.1 Screech, Timon (2000). Shogun's Painted Culture: Fear and Creativity in the Japanese States, 1760–1829. Reaktion Books. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-86189-064-1 . https://books.google.com/?id=iEz8oVNwT7wC&pg=PA100. 
  98. 98.0 98.1 Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 419. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  99. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 417. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  100. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 418. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  101. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 419. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  102. Screech, Timon (2000). Shogun's Painted Culture: Fear and Creativity in the Japanese States, 1760–1829. Reaktion Books. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-86189-064-1 . https://books.google.com/?id=iEz8oVNwT7wC&pg=PA99. 
  103. Hall, John Whitney. (1955). Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719–1788, p. 7.
  104. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. pp. 420-421. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  105. 105.0 105.1 Screech, Timon (2000). Shogun's Painted Culture: Fear and Creativity in the Japanese States, 1760–1829. Reaktion Books. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-86189-064-1 . https://books.google.com/?id=iEz8oVNwT7wC&pg=PA100. 
  106. Screech, Timon (2000). Shogun's Painted Culture: Fear and Creativity in the Japanese States, 1760–1829. Reaktion Books. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-86189-064-1 . https://books.google.com/?id=iEz8oVNwT7wC&pg=PA99. 
  107. Klaproth, Julius von (1834). Nipon o dai itsi ran: ou Annales des empereurs du Japon. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 421. https://books.google.com/?id=18oNAAAAIAAJ. 
  108. Beasley, W. (1972). The Meiji Restoration. Stanford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8047-7990-6 . https://books.google.com/?id=k2FQEaQtWHIC&pg=PA64. 
  109. Jansen, Marius B. (1995). The Emergence of Meiji Japan, p. 1.
  110. Keene, Donald (1999). Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era – Poetry, Drama, Criticism. Columbia University Press. p. 393. ISBN 978-0-231-11439-4 . https://books.google.com/?id=3kKIHQxTA5cC&pg=PA393. 
  111. 111.0 111.1 Bunyel, Baba (1905). Japan 1853–1864: Or, Genji Yume Monogatari. 内外出版協會. p. 11. https://books.google.com/?id=22cP2o20HrAC. 
  112. Pollack, David (1992). Reading Against Culture: Ideology and Narrative in the Japanese Novel. Cornell University Press. p. 208. ISBN 0-8014-8035-3 . https://books.google.com/?id=qYDzjGVWs0gC&pg=PA208. 
  113. 113.0 113.1 Lane-Poole, Stanley; Dickins, Frederick Victor (1894). The Life of Sir Harry Parkes: Minister plenipotentiary to Japan. by F.V. Dickens. Minister plenipotentiary to China by S. Lane-Poole. Macmillian and Company. p. 97. https://books.google.com/?id=uq4JAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA97. 
  114. 114.0 114.1 114.2 Dean (2002). Japanese Legal System. Cavendish Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-84314-322-2 . https://books.google.com/?id=OohyicuN-GIC&pg=PA55. 
  115. Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 929. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA929. 
  116. 116.0 116.1 116.2 116.3 GlobalSecurity.org, Japanese years; retrieved 2012-12-11.

Other websites