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Meiwa (明和) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, , lit. "year name") after Hōreki and before An'ei. This period started in June 1764 and ended in November 1772. During this time, the empress and emperor were Go-Sakuramachi-tennō (後桜町天皇) and Go-Momozono-tennō (後桃園天皇).
Events of the Meiwa Era
- 1766 (Meiwa 3): A plan to remove the Shogun was not successful.
- 1770 (Meiwa 7): A typhoon flattened the newly built Imperial Palace in Kyoto.
- 1770 (Meiwa 7): A great comet (Lexell's Comet) with a very long tale lit up the night skies throughout the summer and autumn.
- 1770 (Meiwa 7): This was the start of 15 years of drought in Japan.
- 9 January 1771: Empress Go-Sakuramachi abdicated; ; and the succession passed to her nephew (senso). Soon after, Emperor Go-Momozono's role as monarch was confirmed by ceremonies (sokui).
- 29 February 1772 (Meiwa 9, 26th day or the 1st month): "The Great Meiwa Fire" -- one of the three greatest Edo fire disasters.
- 2 August 1772 (Meiwa 9, 4th day of the 6th month): A big storm in the Kantō with floods and lost crops.
- 17 August 1772 (Meiwa 9, 19th day of the 6th month): A major storm destroys 4000 houses in Edo.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Meiwa" Japan Encyclopedia, p. 625.
- Nussbaum, "Tennō," pp. 962-963.
- Nussbaum, "Go-Momozono Tennō," p. 257; Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 419.
- Screech, Timon. (2000). The Shogun's Painted Culture, p. 99.
- Screech, (2006). Secret Memoirs of the Shoguns: Isaac Titsingh and Japan, 1779-1822. pp. 139-145.
- Hall, John Whitney. (1955). Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719-1788, p. 120.
- Meyer, Eva-Maria. (1999). Japans Kaiserhof in der Edo-Zeit, p. 186; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44; a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami. Compare Imperial Household Agency (Kunaichō), Ceremony of Accession (Sokui-no-Rei); retrieved 2012-6-30.
- Hall, p. 120.
- National Diet Library, "The Japanese Calendar" -- historical overview plus illustrative images from library's collection
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