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José Figueres Ferrer
José María Hipólito Figueres Ferrer
|38th President of Costa Rica|
8 May 1970 – 8 May 1974
|Preceded by||José Joaquín Trejos Fernández|
|Succeeded by||Daniel Oduber|
|34th President of Costa Rica|
8 November 1953 – 8 May 1958
|Preceded by||Otilio Ulate Blanco|
|Succeeded by||Mario Echandi|
|32nd President of Costa Rica|
8 May 1948 – 8 November 1949
|Preceded by||Teodoro Picado|
|Succeeded by||Otilio Ulate Blanco|
|Born||25 September 1906|
San Ramón, Alajuela
|Died||8 June 1990 (aged 83)|
|Spouse(s)||Henrietta Boggs Long|
Karen Olsen Beck
Also known as Don Pepe, José Figueres Ferrer was born in San Ramón, Alajuela, Costa Rica. His parents were from Cataluña, Spain: Mariano Rodríguez Borges and Francisca Ferrer Mendiola. Figueres entered the Primary Boys School in San Ramón of Alajuela in 1913. He got in Costa Rica’s Lyceum finishing his Secondary studies in 1920. He went to Boston, United States to travel and study. He returned to Costa Rica in 1928 and bought a coffee farm.
In 1942, Figueres made a speech on Latin America Radio. In this speech, he objected to the situation in Costa Rica under president Rafael Ángel Calderón. Because of this speech, he was arrested and forced to leave the country. Figueres return to Costa Rica in 1944. He started a political party, the Democratic Party. A main goal of the party was to go against Calderon's party, the National Republican Party. In 1948, supporters of Calderón caused problems with an election for president in which Calderón lost to Otilio Ulate. Because of this, the results of the election were not used. This led to the start of the civil war in 1948. In March 11, 1948, Don Pepe began a war to support the peoples decision at the previous election. Figueres and his troops won.
President of Costa Rica
In the same year, José Figueres Ferrer became president of the Second Republic Founder Assembly. He became president of Costa Rica for the first time and eliminated the Costa Rica army. He became President of Costa Rica for the second time in 1953 winning the election with 65% of the votes. In 1970, he became Costa Rica’s President for the third time. Figueres died June 8, 1990. Five months later he was declared Benemérito de la Patria.
In the 1953-1958 administration, very important institutions are created. These included:
- Living and Urbanism National Institute (INVU).
- Costarrican Turism Institute (ICT).
- He promulgated the Production National Council Organism Law (CNP).
During his last administration (1970-1974) a lot of institutes were created such as:
- Municipal Foment and Consultancy Institute (IFAM).
- Costa Rica’s Technological Institute (ITCR).
- Costa Rica’s National College.
- Culture, Youth and Sports Ministry.