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Developer(s) Mojang
Publisher(s) Mojang
Designer(s) Markus "Notch" Persson
Jens "Jeb" Bergensten
Artist(s) Kristoffer Zetterstrand
(In-game artwork)
Markus "Junkboy" Toivonen
Composer(s) Daniel "C418" Rosenfeld
Platform(s) Computer (Java), as Browser Applet, iOS, Android, Xbox 360, Raspberry Pi.
Release date(s) Classic: May 17, 2009
Indev: December 23, 2009
Infdev: February 27, 2010
Alpha: June 28, 2010
Beta: December 20, 2010
Official Release November 19, 2011
Genre(s) Sandbox
Mode(s) Single-player, Multiplayer

Minecraft is a video game from 2011. It was made by Markus Persson (nicknamed "Notch"). The game has been called the new Legos of the digital age. The game is a lot of fun, but has also helped millions of kids to learn to code computer programs and think more critically. It is a sandbox game where the player can play a human made of cubes that can walk around and break the blocks which make up the landscape. The player can then put the blocks back together to make new constructions.


Minecraft was created as an experiment to test random creation for caves. Minecraft was inspired by Infiniminer, a game created by other people. The first version of Minecraft was released on May 17, 2009. A a significant update known as "The Halloween Update" containing the Nether was released on October 31, 2010. The beta was released on December 20, 2010. The full game was released on November 18, 2011. At first, Minecraft was created only by Persson. Other people started to work on it when Persson started an independent video game company called Mojang. Later in 2011, a version of Minecraft named "Pocket Edition" was released for iOS and Android. In 2012, Persson gave Jens Bergensten the job of being the main developer of Minecraft. In 2012, Minecraft came out on the Xbox 360 as a download and was available for 1600 Microsoft Points ($19.99). In 2013, Minecraft came out as a disc for the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. Versions for the Xbox One, PlayStation 4, and PlayStation Vita are also available.

In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US$2.5 billion


In Minecraft, your first goal is to survive the night. In the night, several monsters comes out to kill you. You can build a shelter to protect yourself from these monsters. There are other dimensions like the Nether and the End. In the End is the Enderdragon, the final boss monster. After killing it, there's no more set goal, allowing you to make your own goal. There is an option to kill the Wither, another boss monster you can create as many times as you want. Creepers, a popular symbol in the game, were created when Mojang failed at making a pig. They succeeded in the end and there are pigs in the game.


The player uses the W, A, S and D keyboard keys to move around by default, but the controls can be changed in the menu options. The spacebar is used to jump. The Computer mouse is used to look around, the Left mouse button is used to attack or break blocks, and the right mouse button will use an item or place blocks.

Game modes

There are 5 game modes in Minecraft.

  • Survival Mode - The player must gather resources, kill monsters, mine minerals and make items such as tools, armor and weapons. The player must also gather food in order to survive starvation. If the player dies, they then are given the choice to re-spawn into the game and continue play (with an exception of dropping all the current items held in their inventory) or to return to the main menu of the game.
  • Hardcore Mode - It is the same as "Survival Mode", but with two differences. If the player dies, the world they play in is deleted and they cannot play in that world again. Also, the game is locked on hard difficulty and cannot be changed without any help from a third party program.
  • Creative Mode - The player gets an unlimited number of blocks, and tools. This mode was created to let the player build whatever constructions they wanted to. They do not need to deal with surviving in this mode.
  • Spectator Mode - Released in version 1.8. This allows players to go into other players viewpoints and "spectate" them. But not just players, players can spectate mobs too. Each mob has its own viewpoint effect. (Ex: Creepers having a green filter, and spiders having a kaleidoscope view, hence their 8 eyes) Spectating players or mobs is done by right-clicking them. Also, when in this mode, the player has no-clip and can fly. The inventory is invisible, thus making it impossible to place blocks in Spectator mode without modification of Minecraft. You can access Spectator Mode by typing in the chat bar "/gamemode 3".
  • Adventure Mode - This mode is designed for community maps. The only way to access this mode is to enable cheats throughout the more world options, then changing the game mode by typing /gamemode 2 in the chat bar. The player can not place or break blocks, until the release of versions higher than 1.3.2, where they player is able to break blocks when holding the matching tool in their player's hand, this feature is also introduced placing blocks in adventure mode. You probably won't use this mode to often unless you like to create public maps.

In all modes (except Spectator Mode), players can build things such as houses, pixel art and towers. There is also a multiplayer mode, where players can play together through the internet. This requires the player to enter a server address.


Multiplayer mode, as mentioned above, requires a server address. This is more commonly known as an IP address. Once a player has one of these, they can connect to the server and play with their friends. They can also connect to a server that is very popular and has people the player has never met before. and go on any profile they would like.

Minecraft Realms.

Minecraft Realms are a special version of the original Multiplayer. When buying a "Realm", you can get your own server, but hosted by Mojang. This makes the process of creating a server easier. In Minecraft Realms, there are several "mini-games", which are maps/games created by popular Minecraft users.


The term "Mob" is short for mobile, or any monster, animal, or Non-Player-Characters (NPC). Some blow up, some shoot arrows and some just attack you with their limbs (arms and legs).

  • Hostile: These will attack the player on sight. They include Zombies, Skeletons, Wither Skeletons, Spiders (only attack at night unless you hit them during the day), Slimes, Creepers, Ghasts, the very destructive Enderdragon, and the very powerful Wither.
  • Passive: These are mostly animals such as Cows, Pigs, Chickens, Sheep, and Mooshrooms (mushroom cows). They will run away when hit. They cannot hurt the player at all.
  • Neutral: These will only attack the player if the player attacks them first. They may also attack under certain circumstances such as "only attack at night", "if the player attacks a member of their group", or "if the player looks at them." They are Wolves, Zombie Pigmen (who fight back if the player hits one of them), Endermen (also if the player puts the crosshair on them/looks at them) and Spiders (only neutral during the day).
  • NPC (non-player character): This group so far only includes villagers which, like passive mobs, they will run if hit and cannot hurt the player. They are mobs that will not attack you in any way, and they will help you. The Iron Golem is not a NPC.
  • Boss: These mobs have much more health than the normal mob. They include the Enderdragon and the Wither. They have different means of killing you and drop items on death.

The Nether

Players can build a portal out of obsidian blocks and go to a place called the Nether. In it, they can fight fire-ball-shooting Ghasts, avoid the Zombie Pigmen, attack Magma Cubes, duel Wither Skeletons, search for brewing ingredients, dodge the fiery Blaze, and try not to fall into the unforgiving oceans of lava. Players can find a Nether Fortress, where Blazes and Wither Skeletons are common. It is mainly constructed of Nether Brick.

The Nether has, besides the oceans of lava, many other things. The ground is mainly Netherrack, which can be lit forever with a flint and steel. Players can also find Quartz. The top of the Nether is made of Bedrock (as is the bottom) so the only way to get through is by "cheating". Players can do this by using the new Dark Oak sapling formation to grow the tree through the Bedrock.

The End

The player can make an End Portal which will teleport them to a deadly realm. If they can fend off Endermen and kill the Enderdragon, they will be shown the credits screen, which also shows a backstory. They can still play after defeating the dragon. After you kill the Enderdragon it drops a black egg which can't be moved easily, but you can move it with a piston or by placing a torch two blocks underneath the egg and breaking the block between[1]. Unlike the Wither boss, the Enderdragon can only be fought once on minecraft for the xbox the ender dragons health regenerator 2 are in iron bars


  1. This can be seen in any Minecraft video in which they defeat the Enderdragon.

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