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Pentane
Pentane-2D-Skeletal.svg
Structure of n-Pentan.svg
Pentane-3D-balls.png
Pentane-3D-space-filling.png
Other names Quintane[1]
Identifiers
CAS number 109-66-0
PubChem 8003
EC number 203-692-4
DrugBank DB03119
MeSH pentane
ChEBI CHEBI:37830
RTECS number RZ9450000
SMILES CCCCC
Beilstein Reference 969132
Gmelin Reference 1766
Properties
Molecular formula C5H12
Molar mass 72.15 g mol-1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like[2]
Density 0.626 g mL−1; 0.6262 g mL−1 (at 20 °C)
Melting point

Expression error: Unrecognized word "to". °C, 142.7 to 144.1 K, Expression error: Unrecognized word "to". °F

Boiling point

Expression error: Unrecognized word "to". °C, 309.0 to 309.4 K, Expression error: Unrecognized word "to". °F

Solubility in water 40 mg L−1 (at 20 °C)
log P 3.255
Vapor pressure 57.90 kPa (at 20.0 °C)
kH 7.8 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
Acidity (pKa) ~45
Basicity (pKb) ~59
λmax 200 nm
-63.05·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD) 1.358
Viscosity 0.240 mPa·s (at 20 °C)
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−174.1–−172.9 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−3.5095–−3.5085 MJ mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
263.47 J K−1 mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 167.19 J K−1 mol−1
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
1
0
 
Explosive limits 1.5–7.8%[2]
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
TWA 1000 ppm (2950 mg/m3)[2]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Pentane is an organic compound with the chemical formula of C5H12. It is an alkane with five carbon atoms. Usually, "pentane" represents all three isomers (n-pentane, isopentane and neopentane). But in the IUPAC, pentane only represents n-pentane. In the IUPAC, the other two isomers is 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane. Cyclopentane's chemical formula is C5H10, so it is not an isomer of pentane.

Isomers

Common name normal pentane
unbranched pentane
n-pentane
isopentane neopentane
IUPAC name pentane 2-methylbutane 2,2-dimethylpropane
Molecular
diagram
N-Pentan.png Isopentane.PNG Neopentane.PNG
Skeletal
diagram
Pentane-2D-Skeletal.svg Isopentane-2D-skeletal.png Neopentane-2D-skeletal.png

Reaction

All isomers of pentane burn with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water:

C5H12+8O2->5CO2+6H2O.

References