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Pope Boniface VIII
|Papacy began||December 24, 1294|
|Papacy ended||October 11, 1303|
|Predecessor||Pope Celestine V|
|Successor||Pope Benedict XI|
|Birth name||Benedetto Caetani|
Anagni, Papal States
October 11, 1303 |
Boniface was involved in Italian and European political disputes.
Boniface VIII made a rule that if a ruler (king) fined people taxes without the church or popes' permission that the ruler would be excluded from the church. He would make rash decisions without consideration. He was known to be harsh, mean, cruel, and did not listen to other people's recommendations. For example, He declared a very rash papal law that all people, not just Christians, must follow him if they want to go to heaven. He believed as the Pope, all rulers should bow down to him and respect him.
After his death
- "List of Popes," Catholic Encyclopedia (2009); retrieved 2011-11-29.
- "Pope Boniface VIII", Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2011-11-29.
- Watts, Tim. "Boniface VIII." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
- Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. (1838). "Boniface VIII," Penny cyclopaedia, Vol. 5, p. 154.
- Note on ordinal numbering: Popes Boniface VIII–IX are really the 7th and 8th popes with that name. This is because Boniface VII is now classed as an antipope; but during the reign of Boniface VIII, this was not recognized. The "true" or actual seventh pope Boniface identified himself with the ordinal number VIII. In other words, the numbering of popes after the 7th Boniface needs to be explained -- compare Popes Benedict XI–XVI.
- "Abdication," Catholic Encyclopedia; retrieved 2013-2-11.
- Pennington, Kenneth. "Boniface VIII." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.
- "Boniface IX," Encyclopedia Britannica (1910), Vol. 4, p. 207.
- Boase, Thomas Sherrer Ross. (1933). Boniface VIII. London: Constable. OCLC 1387650
| Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- "Pope Boniface VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Catholic Hierarchy, Pope Boniface VII
- Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Cardinal Caetani
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