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Toyo Province (豊国 Toyo-no kuni ) was an very old province of Japan, in the area of Buzen and Bungo Provinces. The ancient entity was in what is modern Ōita Prefecture and northeastern Fukuoka Prefecture. It was divided into Buzen and Bungo in 683. It was sometimes called Hōshū (豊州).
The history of the province started and ended before the Taihō Code was established at the beginning of the 8th century.
- Satow, Ernest. (1874). "The Geography of Japan," Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. 1-2, p. 35.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Buzen" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 96; "Bungo" at p. 90.
- Aston, William.1896). "Ankan Tennō," Nihongi: chronicles of Japan from the earliest times to A.D. 697, Vol. 2, p. 32.