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|Centuries:||14th century – 15th century – 16th century|
|Decades:||1420s 1430s 1440s – 1450s – 1460s 1470s 1480s|
|Years:||1449 1450 1451 – 1452 – 1453 1454 1455|
- March – Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor becomes the last to be crowned in Rome.
- Portuguese navigator Diogo de Teive discovers Corvo Island in the Azores.
- 18 June – Pope Nicholas V issues the bull Dum Diversas, legitimising the colonial slave trade.
- October – English troops under John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury, land in Guyenne, France, and retake most of the province without a fight.
- A major eruption of the South Pacific volcano Kuwae in Vanuatu has a subsequent global cooling effect (the eruption released more sulfate than any other event in the past 700 years).
- Battle of Bealach nam Broig, a Scottish clan battle.
- Murder of William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas by James II of Scotland at Stirling Castle.
- Revolt of Ghent: Forces of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, clash multiple times with rebel militia from Ghent in the region around Ghent.
- February 6 – Joana, Crown Princess of Portugal (d. 1490)
- March 10 – King Ferdinand II of Aragon (d. 1516)
- April 15 – Leonardo da Vinci, Italian artist and inventor (d. 1519)
- April 19 – King Frederick IV of Naples (d. 1504)
- July 10 – King James III of Scotland (d. 1488)
- July 27 – Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan (d. 1508)
- September 21 – Girolamo Savonarola, Italian religious reformer and ruler of Florence (d. 1498)
- October 2 – King Richard III of England (d. 1485)
- December 10 – Johannes Stöffler, German mathematician (d. 1531)
- February 10
- May 26 – John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury
- December 12 – Guillaume Huin d'Estaing, Catholic cardinal
- date unknown