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|Centuries:||16th century – 17th century – 18th century|
|Decades:||1620s 1630s 1640s – 1650s – 1660s 1670s 1680s|
|Years:||1655 1656 1657 – 1658 – 1659 1660 1661|
- January 13 – Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London
- February 6 – Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea
- May 1 – Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by Thomas Browne
- September 3 -Oliver Cromwell dies. His son Richard assumes his father's former position as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
- The peace between Sweden and Denmark was concluded in Roskilde with Treaty of Roskilde.
- France joins England in the war against Spain, which began in 1654. The Spanish were defeated at the Battle of the Dunes in June. England was then given Dunkirk for their assistance in the win.
- Portuguese traders are expelled from Ceylon by Dutch invaders.
- After his father Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal, his son Aurangzeb deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire.