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|Centuries:||2nd century – 3rd century – 4th century|
|Decades:||230s 240s 250s – 260s – 270s 280s 290s|
|Years:||257 258 259 – 260 – 261 262 263|
- Battle of Edessa: Emperor Valerian is defeated by the Persians.
- Valerianus I has a meeting with Shapur to talk about peace. The truce is betrayed and he is taken prisoner for the rest of his life.
- Shapur I sends Valerian to Bishapur. The Roman army builds the Band-e Kaisar (Bridge of Valerian).
- Gallienus becomes the new emperor of Rome.
- Gallienus leaves the fortifications in the Black Forest area because of invading Alamanni.
- Gallienus lives at Mediolanum (modern Milan).
- Postumus, Roman usurper, forms the Gallic Empire.
- Saloninus, son of Gallienus, is made Augustus by his troops.
- Postumus kills Saloninus. He is made emperor.
- Postumus wins over all the Roman provinces west of the Alps, including Gaul, Britain and Hispania.
- The Roman fort of Wiesbaden (Germany) is captured by the Alamanni.
- The Franks take control over the Scheldt estuary (approximate date).
- Persian king Shapur I destroys Caesarea Mazaca in Asia Minor.
- Cao Huan succeeds Cao Mao as ruler of the Chinese Kingdom of Wei.
- Syria, Egypt and Palestine break off from the Roman Empire to form the Persian-supported Palmyrene Empire.
Arts and sciences
- Earliest known date of chess.
- Pope Dionysius makes bishop Dionysius of Alexandria explain why he is separating the members of the Trinity as three distinct gods.
- Paul of Samosata becomes Patriarch of Antioch.
- Jin Huidi, emperor of the Jin Dynasty (approximate date)
- Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, Roman Emperor (d. 311)
- Cao Mao, ruler of the Chinese Kingdom of Wei (killed in an abortive coup d'état against Sima Zhao) (b. 241)
- Chen Tai, minister of the Kingdom of Wei
- Saloninus, Roman emperor and son of Gallienus
- Sun Liang, Emperor of the Chinese Kingdom of Wu (b. 243)
- Valerianus I, Roman emperor (approximate date)als:260er#260