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Syrian Arab Republic
الجمهورية العربية السورية
al-Jumhūriyyah al-‘Arabīyah as-Sūriyyah
Ba'athist Single Party State
• from France
|17 April 1946|
• from the United Arab Republic
|28 September 1961|
|185,180 km2 (71,500 sq mi) (89th)|
• Water (%)
• July 2012 estimate
|118.3/km2 (306.4/sq mi) (101st)|
Syria is a country in the Middle East, the west part of Asia. It borders (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey. Its western part faces the Mediterranean Sea. Its eastern and northern parts are mountainous.
Syria has a very long history. It was a land of Phoenicians. Later it became part of the Achaemenid Empire, Roman Empire and then the Eastern Roman Empire. In those days people spoke the Syriac language. The city Antioch was great and one of the important cities in Christendom. In the Arab Empire people began to speak the Arabic language. Today most Syrian people believe in Islam but there are still Christians too.
When World War I ended, France was given control over Lebanon and Syria. Britain was given power over Iraq, Jordan and Palestine. A border was drawn between Iraq and Syria in 1920. France controlled Syria until 1946. That year Syria became its own country.
Syria is between latitudes 32° and 38° N, and longitudes 35° and 43° E. It is mostly arid plateau. The area bordering the Mediterranean is fairly green. The Euphrates, Syria's most important river, crosses the country in the east.
The climate in Syria is dry and hot. Winters are mild.
Politics and government
Syria is a republic. The old Constitution of Syria was started on 13 March 1971. It made Syria as a secular socialist state. Islam was the majority religion. A new constitution has been in place since 2012.
Branches of government
The executive branch is the president, two vice presidents, the prime minister, and the Council of Ministers. The constitution says the president must be a Muslim. It does not make Islam the state religion. According to the 2012 constitution, the president is elected by Syrian people in a direct election.
Nearly all of Syria’s radio and television outlets are state owned. The Ba'ath Party controls nearly all newspapers.
Syria's human rights are among the worst in the world, according to human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch. The authorities arrest democracy and human rights activists, censor websites, detain bloggers, and have travel bans.
Syria has fourteen Governorates, or muhafazat. The governorates are divided into sixty districts. The governorates are:
- Al Hasakah
- Al Ladhiqiyah
- Al Qunaytirah
- Ar Raqqah
- As Suwayda
- Dayr az Zawr
- Rif Dimashq
Syria is a middle-income country. The economy is based on agriculture, oil, industry, and tourism.
Syria has three international airports (Damascus, Aleppo and Lattakia). They are hubs for Syrian Air. Foreign airlines also fly to them. Most Syrian cargo is carried by Chemins de Fer Syriens, the Syrian railway company.
|Population in Syria|
|Source: OECD/World Bank/UNO|
Most people live in the Euphrates valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert.
Education is free from ages 6 to 12. All children this age must attend school.
The most popular sports in Syria are football, basketball, swimming, and tennis. Damascus was home to the fifth and seventh Pan Arab Games. Many popular football teams are based in Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, and Latakia.
Civil war 2011-
Since 2011, there has been a civil war between pro-government supporters and rebels who oppose the government. Over 80,000 people have been killed in this war according to United Nations. The United Nations Security Council has condemned the mass killing in Syria in May 2012 but in vain.
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- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 IEA (pdf pages 83–85
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