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Ethanol
Ethanol-2D-flat.svg
Ethanol-2D-skeletal.svg
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Other names Absolute alcohol
alcohol
cologne spirit
drinking alcohol
ethylic alcohol
EtOH
ethyl alcohol
ethyl hydrate
ethyl hydroxide
ethylol
grain alcohol
hydroxyethane
methylcarbinol
Identifiers
CAS number 64-17-5
PubChem 702
DrugBank DB00898
ChEBI CHEBI:16236
SMILES CCO
Beilstein Reference 1718733
Gmelin Reference 787
3DMet B01253
Properties
Molecular formula C2H6O
Molar mass 46.06 g mol-1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 0.7893 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)[2]
Melting point

−114.14 ± 0.03[2] °C, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". K, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". °F

Boiling point

78.24 ± 0.09[2] °C, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". K, Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "�". °F

Solubility in water miscible
log P −0.18
Vapor pressure 5.95 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 15.9 (H2O), 29.8 (DMSO)[3][4]
−33.60·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD) 1.3611[2]
Viscosity 1.2 mPa·s (at 20 °C), 1.074 mPa·s (at 25 °C)[5]
Dipole moment 1.69 D[6]
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

3
2
0
 
Flash point 14 °C (Absolute)
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) [7]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
A bottle of Ethanol

Ethanol, also known as marks formula, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol or just alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound. Its chemical formula is C2H5OH, also written as C2H6O. It is the active part of alcoholic drinks, which are drunk in most cultures worldwide. It is also used as a solvent because it can dissolve many other chemicals and is not very toxic. Yeast makes most of the ethanol that people use.

Ethanol fuel

Ethanol fuel can be used instead of gasoline in cars and other engines. Engines can use pure ethanol or ethanol mixed with gasoline.

In Brazil, ethanol fuel made from sugar cane provides 18 percent of the country's fuel for cars. Because of this, Brazil does not have to buy oil from other countries.[8] To do this, Brazil cut down much of the rain forests to grow more sugar cane, which is then fermented into Ethanol.

Most cars in the U.S. can run on fuels that have of up to 10% ethanol in them. Car makers like Ford, DaimlerChrysler, and GM also make vehicles specifically designed to run on higher ethanol blends. Some of their engines can run on up to 85% ethanol (E85). By mid-2006, there were about six million E85-compatible vehicles on U.S. roads.[9]

References

  1. "Ethanol – Compound Summary". USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=702.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Template:RubberBible92nd
  3. "Acid Ionization Constants of Alcohols. II. Acidities of Some Substituted Methanols and Related Compounds1,2". Journal of the American Chemical Society 82 (4): 795–798. 1960. doi:10.1021/ja01489a008 .
  4. "Thermochemical acidities in three superbase systems". J. Org. Chem. 48 (10): 1569–1578. 1983. doi:10.1021/jo00158a001 .
  5. Lide, David R., ed. (2012). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL.: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. pp. 6–232. https://books.google.com/books?id=pYPRBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA6.
  6. Lide, David R., ed. (2008). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (89th ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 9–55. https://books.google.com/books?id=KACWPwAACAAJ&pg=PA9.
  7. Template:PGCH
  8. America and Brazil Intersect on Ethanol
  9. American energy: The renewable path to energy security

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