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# John von Neumann

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John von Neumann | |
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John von Neumann in the 1940s | |

Born | December 28, 1903 Budapest, Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy |

Died | February 8, 1957 Washington, D.C., United States | (aged 53)

Residence | United States |

Nationality | Hungarian, American |

Fields | Mathematics |

**John von Neumann** (December 28. 1903 – February 8. 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician and physicist who contributed to many fields including:

- set theory
- functional analysis
- quantum mechanics
- ergodic theory
- continuous geometry
- economics
- game theory
- computer science
- numerical analysis
- systems theory
- statistics

He is generally regarded as a prodigy, polymath and one of the most important mathematicians of the 20th century.^{[1]}

He was a member of a group called the 'Martians'. They were Hungarian immigrants to the US of extraordinary intellect. Others people in this group were Edward Teller, Paul Erdős, Leó Szilárd and Eugene Wigner.

## Noteworthy work

- His textbook on quantum mechanics is one of the first on this topic.
- His game theory is considered one of the most important tools in competitive strategic management and is also of high importance in biosciences.
- He is the designer of the Von-Neumann architecture, which is basic to nearly all computers today.
- He was one of the first proponents of artificial intelligence. He proposed the idea of self replicating machines. This is why a machine that can replicate itself is now commonly referred to as a 'Von Neumann machine'.
- With Stanislav Ulam, he did some of the most important calculations in the Manhattan project.
- He worked at the Institute of Advanced Studies the same time as Albert Einstein, Kurt Gödel and Robert Oppenheimer
- Well known by computer scientists
- Principles are included in every modern computer, tablet or phone.