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A mermaid is a mythological creature with a female human head and upper body and the tail of a fish. Mermaids live mostly in the water, although sometimes they are known to come out and sit on the rocks above the sea.
Overview and etymology
The word is a compound of mere, the Old English word for "sea", and maid, a woman. The male equivalent is a merman. Much like sirens, mermaids sometimes sing to people and gods and enchant them, distracting them from their work and causing them to walk off the deck or run their ships aground. Other stories depict them squeezing the life out of drowning men while attempting to rescue them. They are also said to carry humans down to their underwater kingdoms. In Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Mermaid, it is said that they forget that humans cannot breathe underwater, while others say they drown men out of spite. The sirens of Greek mythology are sometimes portrayed in later folklore as mermaid-like; in fact, some languages use the same word for both bird and fish creatures, such as the Maltese word 'sirena'. Other related types of mythical or legendary creatures are water fairies (e.g., various water nymphs) and selkies, animals that can transform themselves from seals to humans.
Ancient Near East
The first known mermaid stories appeared in Assyria, ca. 1000 BC. The goddess Atargatis loved a shepherd and accidentally killed him. She was so sad she jumped into a lake to become a fish, but the waters would not let her beauty be hidden. Because of this, she took the form of a mermaid.
A popular Greek legend turns Alexander the Great's sister into a mermaid after she died. She lived, it was said, in the Aegean that when she met a ship, she asked its sailors only one question: "Is King Alexander alive?" (Greek: "Ζει ο Βασιλιάς Αλέξανδρος;") The answer was "He lives and reigns and conquers the world" (Greek: "Ζει και βασιλεύει και τον κόσμο κυριεύει"). If they answered her question correctly, she calmed the waters for the ship, but any other answer would make her angry, and raise a storm.
The One Thousand and One Nights includes several tales have "Sea People", such as Djullanar the Sea-girl. Unlike other mythologies, these are almost the same as humans, except the fact that they can breathe and live underwater. They also breed with land humans, the children of them being able to live underwater.
Mermaids were noted in British folklore as unlucky omens. Several parts of the song Sir Patrick Spens is about a mermaid speaking to doomed ships, or telling them they will never see land again. Mermaids can also be a sign of bad weather.
Some mermaids were described as very big, up to 2,000 feet (610 m).
Mermaids could also swim up rivers to freshwater lakes. One day, in a lake near his house, the Laird of Lorntie went to help a woman he thought drowning, and a servant of his pulled him back, warning that it was a mermaid, and the mermaid screamed after him that she would have killed him if it were not for his servant.
Sometimes, though, mermaids could appear as nicer characters, teaching humans how to cure diseases.
Mermen were thought of as more wild and ugly than mermaids, but they also were not interested in humans.
Some people claim to have seen dead or living mermaids from places such as Java and British Columbia. There are two Canadian reports from the area of Vancouver and Victoria, BC, one from sometime between 1870 and 1890, the other from 1967.
In August 2009, the town of Kiryat Yam in Israel offered a prize of $1 million for anyone who could prove that mermaids existed off its coast, after dozens of people said they had seen a mermaid leaping out of the water like a dolphin and doing tricks in the air before returning back to where it had come from. The prize has not yet been awarded.
Art and literature
One famous image was created by John William Waterhouse, from 1895 to 1905, called A Mermaid (see the top of this article). It was an example of late British Academy style art, but disappeared and was not found until the 1970s. It is again in the collection of the Royal Academy.
In the 19th century, P. T. Barnum showed in his museum a taxidermal hoax called the Fiji mermaid. Others have made similar hoaxes, which are usually made by paper-mâché or parts of dead creatures, usually monkeys and fish, stitched together too look like a mermaid. In the wake of the 2004 tsunami, pictures of Fiji "mermaids" came up on the Internet as examples of items that had washed up onto the beach, though they were no more real than Barnum's exhibit.
Sirenomelia, also called "mermaid syndrome", is a rare disorder. This, however, is as rare as conjoined twins, and only happens to one out of every 100,000 live births. It is usually very bad for the kidney and bladder, and only about four survivors were known to be alive as of July 2003.
Mermaids in Thai folklore
In Thai folklore "Phra Abhai Manee" there is a beautiful mermaid named "Praphanpheloung". She is a beautiful lady who has tail instead of legs. The story told us about a charming prince who was taken by the giantess "Pisua Samudr" and lived together with her until they have a son named "Sin -Samudr". One day Sin Samudr went out of a cave and took a merman to his father who was locked in the cave. The merman knew the story well about a young prince so he want to help him and his son escape from the giantess. The story also mention about what mermaid look like. They are very beautiful with long black hair and pale skin. They love to sing and swim under the moon. Their eyes can be able to see in the dark but blur vision in the sun. Thai folklore "Phra Abhai Manee" was written by the famous poet named "Sunthornphu" because of the story happened near the shore so people placed his characters statues such as a giantess, the prince and a mermaid at Rayong, Thailand
In popular culture
- Teacher's Guide
- Mermaids and Ikons: A Greek Summer (1978) page 73 by Gwendolyn MacEwen ISBN 978-0-88784-062-3
- Folktales from Greece Page 96 ISBN 1-56308-908-4
- Irwin, Robert (2003). One Thousand and One Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 209.
- Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Mermaids", p 287. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
- Francis James Child, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, v 2, p 19, Dover Publications, New York 1965
- K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, p 57 University of Chicago Press, London, 1967
- K. M. Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Mermaids", p 288. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
- K. M. Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Mermen", p 290. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
- "The Mermaid". http://www.ucl.ac.uk/atlas/polish/mywarsaw/warsaw10.html. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- "Warsaw Mermaid's Statue". http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=47&dz_id=2. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
- Myths & Legends
- Folklore Examples in British Columbia
- "Is a mermaid living under the sea in Kiryat Yam?", Haaretz 12 Aug. 2009.
- Prettejohn, Elizabeth et al. (2008). J. W. Waterhouse: The Modern Pre-Raphaelite, p. 144. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London. ISBN 978-90-8586-490-5.
- Canadian Heraldic Authority (20 September 2005). "The Public Register of Arms, Flags, and Badges of Canada > Michaëlle Jean". Queen's Printer for Canada. http://www.gg.ca/heraldry/pub-reg/project-pic.asp?lang=e&ProjectID=929&ProjectElementID=3456. Retrieved 23 September 2008.
- Urban Legends Reference Pages: Mermaid to Order
- "Experts: Sea cow 'sirens' fuel mermaid mythology; sailors' deprivation sparked images". underwatertimes.com. December 25, 2005. http://www.underwatertimes.com/news.php?article_id=05297681013. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
- Kallen B, Castilla EE, Lancaster PA, Mutchinick O, Knudsen LB, Martinez-Frias ML, Mastroiacovo P, Robert E (1992). "The cyclops and the mermaid: an epidemiological study of two types of rare malformation". J Med Genet 29 (1): 30–5. . . .
- "Journal of Pediatric Surgery: A surviving infant with sirenomelia (mermaid syndrome) associated with absent bladder". ScienceDirect. 25 July 2003. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WKP-4950J75-14&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_rig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=e3c14c888d56c7c1a6191a3567cfd7c5. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
|Wikisource has original writing related to this article:|
- Mermaid History
- "The Mermaid" by Heinz Insu Fenkl, from the mermaid-themed Summer 2003 issue of the Journal of Mythic Arts
- The mermaid goddess Derketo from Lucian of Samosata's On the Syrian God (2c. AD)
- Coney Island Mermaid Parade mermaids on parade
- 17th century pamphlet telling the story of an alleged sighting of a mermaid near Pendine, Wales, in 1603
- Israeli city offers reward for proof of mermaid presence on its shore