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Pope Benedict XVI
|Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI|
Benedict XVI in 2010
|Papacy began||19 April 2005|
|Papacy ended||28 February 2013|
|Predecessor||John Paul II|
|Ordination||29 June 1951|
28 May 1977 |
by Josef Stangl
|Created Cardinal||27 June 1977|
|Birth name||Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger|
16 April 1927 |
|Nationality||German (with Vatican citizenship)|
|Residence||Mater Ecclesiae Monastery|
|Parents||Joseph Ratzinger, Sr. and Maria Ratzinger (née Peintner)|
Archbishop of Munich and Freising (1977–1982)|
Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Consolatrice al Tiburtino (1977–1993)
President of the International Theological Commission (1981–2005)
Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (1981–2005)
President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission (1981–2005)
Cardinal-Bishop of Velletri-Segni (1993–2005)
Dean of the College of Cardinals (2002–2005)
Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia (2002–2005)
|Motto||Cooperatores veritatis (cooperators of the truth)|
|Coat of arms|
Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus PP. XVI; German: Benedikt XVI; Italian: Benedetto XVI, born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger on 16 April 1927) is Pope Emeritus of the Catholic Church, having served as Pope from 2005 to 2013. In that position, he was both the leader of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State. Benedict was elected on 19 April 2005 in a papal conclave following the death of Pope John Paul II, celebrated his papal inauguration Mass on 24 April 2005, and took possession of his cathedral, the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, on 7 May 2005.
On 11 February 2013, Benedict announced his resignation in a speech in Latin before the cardinals, citing a "lack of strength of mind and body" due to his advanced age. His resignation became effective on 28 February 2013. He is the first pope to resign since Pope Gregory XII in 1415, and the first to do so on his own initiative since Pope Celestine V in 1294. As pope emeritus, Benedict retains the style of His Holiness, and the title of Pope, and will continue to dress in the papal colour of white. He was succeeded by Pope Francis on 13 March 2013, and he moved into the newly renovated Mater Ecclesiae monastery for his retirement on 2 May 2013.
Ratzinger was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1951. He was a professor at several German universities, including the University of Bonn and the University of Münster. He also taught at the University of Tübingen. and the University of Regensburg.
In 2005, Cardinal Ratzinger was elected Pope at the age of 78. At the conclave, "it was, if not Ratzinger, who? And as they came to know him, the question became, why not Ratzinger?" He chose to be called Benedict XVI.
On 11 February 2013, the pope announced that he will abdicate or resign on 28 February 2013: "I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise of the Petrine ministry." The original declaration was made in Latin. He is the first pope to resign since Pope Gregory XII in 1415. He decided to resign then retired on February 28, 2013 in order to take care of his health condition.
- Introduction to Christianity (1968)
- Einführung in das Christentum: Vorlesungen über das Apostolische Glaubensbekenntnis (1968)
- Das neue Volk Gottes: Entwürfe zur Ekklesiologie (1969)
- Der Gott Jesu Christi: Betrachtungen über den Dreieinigen Gott (1976)
- Eschatologie : Tod und ewiges Leben (1977)
- Principles of Catholic theology: building stones for a fundamental theology (1985)
- Politik und Erlösung: zum Verhältnis von Glaube, Rationalität und Irrationalem in der sogenannten Theologie der Befreiung (1986)
As Pope, OCLC/WorldCat identifies 1,400+ works in 2,300+ publications in 33 languages and 55,000+ library holdings.
- Jesus of Nazareth: from the baptism in the Jordan to the transfiguration (2007)
- Without roots: the West, relativism, Christianity, Islam (2006)
- "Biography of His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI". Vatican.va. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/biography/documents/hf_ben-xvi_bio_20050419_short-biography_en.html. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- Ratzinger, George; Michael Hesseman; Michael J. Miller My Brother, the Pope 2011 Ingatius Press San Francisco page 160
- Kung, Hans Disputed Truth: Memoirs II Continuum International Publishing Group New York New York 2007 page 11
- Streissguth, Thomas Pope Benedict XVI Lerner Publishing Group Minneapolis Minnesota 2007
- Bernstein, Richard et al. "Turbulence on Campus in 60's Hardened Views of Future Pope," New York Times. April 24, 2005; retrieved 2011-10-26.
- Seewald, Peter; Brian McNeil Pope Benedict XVI: Servant of the Truth Ignatius Press San Francisco 2006 page 185
- Heim, Maximillian Heinrich; Michael J. Miller Joseph Ratzinger: Life in the Church and Living Theology: Fundamentals of Ecclesiology with Reference to Lumen Gentium Ignatius Press San Francisco 2007 page 211
- Pope Benedict XVI; Jurgen Habermas Dialectics of Secularization: On Reason and Religion Ignatius Press San Francisco 2006 page 82
- Goodstein, Laurie and Elisabetta Povoledo. "Before Smoke Rises at Vatican, It's Romans vs. the Reformers," New York Times. March 11, 2013; Ivereigh, Austen. "Does cardinal confusion spell a long conclave?" Our Sunday Visitor. 11 March By Austen Ivereigh; excerpt, "A former communications director to the Archbishop emeritus of Westminster (England), Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor, he accompanied the cardinal to Rome in 2005 for the funeral of Pope John Paul II and election of Pope Benedict XVI"; retrieved 2013-3-12.
- Collins, Michael The Vatican: Secrets and Treasures of the Holy City DK New York 2011 page 78
- Note on ordinal numbering: Popes Benedict XI–XVI are really the 10th–15th popes with that name. This is because Benedict X is now parsed as an antipope; but during the reign of Benedict XI, this was not recognized. The "true" or actual fifteenth pope Benedict identifies himself with the ordinal number XVI. In other words, the numbering of popes after the 10th Benedict needs to be explained -- compare Popes Boniface VIII–IX.
- Benedict XVI, "Declaratio" (Declaration) at Vatican.va, 11 February 2012; retrieved 2012-2-11.
- "Original declaration in Latin, Holy See". http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2013/february/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20130211_declaratio_lt.html.
- Messia, Hada (February 11, 2013). "Pope Benedict to resign at the end of the month, Vatican says". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2013/02/11/world/europe/pope-benedict-resignation/?hpt=hp_t1. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- WorldCat Identities, Ratzinger, Joseph
- Pope Benedict XVI Introduction to Christianity Ignatius Press San Francisco 2004
- WorldCat Identities, Benedict XVI Pope 1927-
- Pope Benedict XVI Jesus of Nazareth: From the Baptism in the Jordan to the Transfiguration Volume 1 Doubleday a division of Random House, Inc New York 2007
- Pope Benedict XVI Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam Basic Books 2006
- Vatican webpage, Benedict XVI biography
- Pope Benedict XVI Hats
- Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger
John Paul II
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