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|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1240s 1250s 1260s – 1270s – 1280s 1290s 1300s|
|Years:||1268 1269 1270 – 1271 – 1272 1273 1274|
- July 2 – Kings Otakar II of Bohemia and Stephen V of Hungary sign the first Peace of Pressburg, settling territorial claims following the failed invasion of Hungary by Otakar II.
- September 1 – Pope Gregory X succeeds Pope Clement IV as the 184th popeas the compromise candidate between French and Italian cardinals, ending a three-year conclave, the longest ever.
- The County of Toulouse is returned to the crown of France.
- Marco Polo departs from Venice with his father and uncle on his famous journey to Kublai Khan's China.
- The construction of Caerphilly Castle, the largest in Wales, is completed.
- Construction of the Belaya Vezha in Belarus is begun.
North Africa and the Middle East
- April 8 – Mamluk sultan Baibars continues his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria.
- Mamluk sultan Baibars conducts an unsuccessful siege of the city of Tripoli, and also fails in an attempted naval invasion of Cyprus.
- Edward I of England and Charles of Anjou arrive in Acre, starting the Ninth Crusade against Baibars; however, they are unable to capture any territory and a peace is quickly negotiated.
- September 12 – According to the followers of Nichiren Buddhism, the sect's founder, Nichiren, reaches a turning point known as hosshaku kempon as he discards his identity as a mortal priest and begins to reveal himself as a reincarnation of the Buddha.
- December 18 – Kublai Khan renames his empire "Yuan" (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of China.
- The Nakhi kingdom of the northern Himalayan foothills is annexed by the Yuan Dynasty.