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|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1240s 1250s 1260s – 1270s – 1280s 1290s 1300s|
|Years:||1270 1271 1272 – 1273 – 1274 1275 1276|
- September 29 – Rudolph I of Germany is elected King of Germany over rival candidate King Otakar II of Bohemia, ending the Interregnum; Otakar refuses to acknowledge Rudolph as the new king, leading to the outbreak of war in 1276. Rudolph is the first of many Habsburgs to hold the throne.
- December 6 – Thomas Aquinas quit writing Summa Theologica — a master work of Catholic theology — leaving it unfinished after having a mystical experience during Mass.
- King Otakar II of Bohemia captures Bratislava from Hungary.
The Middle East
- December – Followers of the recently deceased Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi establish the Sufi order of the Whirling Dervishes in the city of Konya (in present-day Turkey).
- The "Holy Redeemer" khachkar, believed to be one of the finest examples of the art form, is carved in Haghpat, Armenia, by Vahram.
- The Constantinople suburb of Beyoğlu (then known as Pera) is given to the Republic of Genoa by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus in return for Genoa's support of the Empire after the Fourth Crusade and the sacking of Constantinople.
- January 31 – The six-year long battle of Xiangyang ends as commander of the Song Dynasty's forces surrender to Kublai Khan. The battle is the first in which firearms are used in combat.
- In Korea, the Sambyeolcho Rebellion against the Goryeo Dynasty (a puppet government of the Mongol Empire) ends as rebel forces are defeated by combined Mongol and Goryeo forces.
- July 15 – Ewostatewos, Ethiopian monk and religious leader (died 1352)
- November 24 – Alphonso, Earl of Chester, son of Edward I of England (died 1284)
- Abu al-Fida, Arab historian (died 1331)
- David VIII of Georgia (died 1311)