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Kingdom of the Netherlands

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

Koninkrijk der Nederlanden  (Dutch)
Flag of the Netherlands
Location of the Netherlands
Map of the four consitituent countries shown to scale
Map of the four consitituent countries shown to scale
and largest city
52°22′N 4°53′E / 52.367°N 4.883°E / 52.367; 4.883
Government seatThe Hague[b]
Official languagesDutch (de facto)[c]
GovernmentSemi-federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Mark Rutte
Guillfred Besaril
Anthony Begina
Jorien Wuite
Independence from Spanish Netherlands
26 July 1581 (Declared)
30 January 1648 (Recognised)
19 January 1795
5 June 1806
• Annexation by First French Empire
1 July 1810
16 March 1815
• Secession of Belgium
4 October 1830 (Declared)
19 April 1839 (Recognised)
15 December 1954
• Total
42,508 km2 (16,412 sq mi) (136th)
• Water (%)
• 2017-2018 estimate
• Density
414/km2 (1,072.3/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-4 (CET (UTC+1)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code
ISO 3166 codeNL
Internet TLD

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly called the Netherlands[g] is a transcontinental sovereign state whose form of government is a constitutional monarchy.

The country was formed in 1954 and is now made up of four countries:

European country:

Caribbean islands:

The Caribbean Netherlands are special municipalities ('public body') of the Netherlands (see Category:Municipalities of the Netherlands) and consists of:

The Netherlands Antilles doesn't exist anymore and were made up of the six above mentioned Caribbean islands.

Constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Country Population
(1 Jan 2012)
Percentage of
Kingdom's population
Percentage of
Kingdom's area
Population density
 Netherlands[i] 16,748,205 98.32% 41,854 98.42% 396  
  Netherlands European mainland 16,725,902 98.19% 41,526 97.65% 399 [8]
 Bonaire †‡ 16,541 0.10% 294 0.69% 46 [9]
 Sint Eustatius †‡ 3,791 0.02% 21 0.05% 137 [9]
 Saba †‡ 1,971 0.01% 13 0.03% 134 [9]
 Aruba 103,504 0.61% 193 0.45% 555 [10]
 Curaçao 145,406 0.85% 444 1.04% 320 [11]
 Sint Maarten 37,429 0.22% 34 0.08% 1,101 [12]
 Kingdom of the Netherlands 17,034,544 100.00% 42,525 100.00% 397  
† The islands in the Caribbean were once part of the  Netherlands Antilles. Aruba left the Antilles in 1986, while Curaçao and Sint Maarten did the same in 2010.
‡ When Curaçao and Sint Maarten left the Antilles in 2010, the other three islands then became part of the Netherlands and are now known as the  Caribbean Netherlands.

Suriname was also part of the Kingdom until it became independent in 1975.


  1. The official motto is in French. The literal translation into English is "I will maintain"; a better translation, however, is "I will hold firm" or "I will uphold" (namely, the integrity and independence of the territory).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Amsterdam is the constitutional capital of the kingdom and the Netherlands, while The Hague is the seat of the government representing both; Oranjestad is the capital of Aruba; Willemstad is the capital of Curaçao; and Philipsburg is the capital of Sint Maarten.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Dutch is an official language in all four constituent countries. Papiamento is an official language in Aruba[1] and Curaçao[2] and has a formal status on Bonaire.[3] English is an official language in Sint Maarten[4] and Curaçao[2] and has a formal status on Saba and Sint Eustatius.[3] Spanish, though not among the official languages, is widely spoken on the Caribbean islands. In Friesland, the West Frisian language has a formal status.[5] Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are officially recognised as regional languages in the Netherlands.[6]
  4. The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is referred to as "Our Prime Minister, in his capacity as chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom" (Dutch: Onze Minister-President, in zijn hoedanigheid van voorzitter van de raad van ministers van het Koninkrijk) when he acts as a Minister of the Kingdom. An example of this can be found in article 2(3a) of the Act on financial supervision for Curaçao and Sint Maarten. Other ministers of the Netherlands are referred to with the additional line "in his capacity as Minister of the Kingdom" (Dutch: in zijn hoedanigheid van Minister van het Koninkrijk) when they act as Kingdom Ministers, as for example with "Our Minister of Justice in his capacity as Minister of the Kingdom" (Dutch: Onze Minister van Justitie in zijn hoedanigheid van minister van het Koninkrijk), except for the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister of Defence, since they always act in a Kingdom capacity. For more information on this, see Borman 2005 and Borman 2010.
  5. Also .eu, shared with other EU member states.
  6. .bq is designated, but not in use, for the Caribbean Netherlands.
  7. It should not be confused with the Netherlands, a constituent country of the kingdom.
  8. The population statistics for the Netherlands proper and the Caribbean Netherlands are for 1 January 2012. However, the statistics for Aruba are for 31 December 2011, for Curaçao for 1 January 2011, and for Sint Maarten for 1 January 2010.
  9. The population statistics of the Central Bureau of Statistics for the Netherlands do not include the Caribbean Netherlands (Source 1, 2). The number given here results from adding the population statistics of the Netherlands with those of the Caribbean Netherlands.


  1. Migge, Bettina; Léglise, Isabelle; Bartens, Angela (2010). Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 268. ISBN 978-90-272-5258-6 . 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "LANDSVERORDENING van de 28ste maart 2007 houdende vaststelling van de officiële talen (Landsverordening officiële talen)" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. 2010-10-10.çao/144328.html. Retrieved 30 July 2013. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" (in Dutch). Retrieved 27 December 2017. 
  4. According to Art. 1 para 2. Constitution of Sint Maarten Archived 2016-03-25 at the Wayback Machine: "The official languages are Dutch and English"
  5. "Wet gebruik Friese taal" (in Dutch). Retrieved 27 December 2017. 
  6. "Welke erkende talen heeft Nederland?" (in Dutch). Rijksoverheid. 2016-01-11. Retrieved 29 December 2018. 
  7. As calculated in the table below
  8. Central Bureau of Statistics (Netherlands)
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Central Bureau of Statistics (Caribbean Netherlands)
  10. Central Bureau of Statistics Archived 2012-11-13 at the Wayback Machine (Aruba)
  11. Central Bureau of Statistics (Curaçao)
  12. Department of Statistics Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine (Sint Maarten)