Oriental Orthodoxy means the group of Eastern Christian Churches that accept only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and do not accept the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. These Churches are also called Old Oriental Churches. Oriental Orthodox churches are different from the churches that call themselves Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is considered the spiritual leader of the Oriental Orthodox Churches.[source?] The spiritual leadership is not understood in the same sense as among the Eastern Orthodox Churches to the Church of Constantinople; but it is in the spirit of respect and honour for the Apostolic Throne of Alexandria. It does not give any special rights to the Church of Alexandria.
The schism (division) between Great Church Orthodox and Catholic and the Oriental Orthodox Churches happened in the 5th century after the Council of Chalcedon.