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Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1890–1912)
Territory of the Qing Dynasty (1820)

The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Category handler/data' not found.; pinyin: Qīng cháo) was a dynasty of rulers of China from 1644 to 1912. The dynasty was founded by the Manchus and so its other name is the Manchu dynasty. The surname of the Qing emperors was Aisin Gioro.

Rise of the Manchu state

In 1580, Nurhaci became the Jian Zhou general of the Ming dynasty. He unified the Manchu tribe and organised the Eight Banners. In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan (King) and founded the Jin dynasty in Liao Ling. In 1626, Nurhaci led armies to attack Ning Yuan. Unluckily, Nurhaci was wounded by Yuan Chonghuan's Portuguese cannon and he died 2 days later. Huang Taiji, the son of Nurhaci, then succeeded to the throne and became the Khan of the Manchu tribe. In 1643, Huang Taiji was dead, caused by apoplexy. Shunzhi Emperor inherited Huang Taiji's throne. Prince Dorgon became the regent. In 1644, the Manchu armies conquered the north of China. The capital was changed to Beijing. The Ming dynasty was overthrown, though fighting continued until 1683.

Cattle and horses in the hundreds were looted and 243 ethnic Daur Mongolic girls and women were raped by Russian Cossacks under Khabarov when he invaded the Amur river basin in the 1650s.[1]

The Albazinians were told to marry Solon Evenki widows by the Board of Rites.[2] Mongol and Manchu women were married by the Albazinians.[3][4][5] The wives married by the Albazinians were former jailed convicts.[6]


Late-Qing

Restoration

A. The self-strengthening movement (1861 - 1895)

The Zongli Yamen - A Foreign Office of the Qing Dynasty

The self-strengthening movement (Chinese: 洋務運動 or 自強運動Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Category handler/data' not found.; 1861 - 1895) was a reform organised during the late Qing. With the defeat in the Opium Wars and the outbreak of Taiping Rebellion, the emperor and the imperial officials realised that it was necessary to improve the country's state with a series of reforms. Therefore, the Self-Strengthening Movement was started.

The movement could be divided into three phases: the first phase (1861 - 1872), the second phase (1872 - 1885) and the third phase (1885 - 1895). The major leaders are Yixin, Prince Gong (Chinese: 恭親王), Wenxiang (Chinese: 文祥), Zeng Guofan (Chinese: 曾國藩), Li Hongzhang (Chinese: 李鴻章), Zuo Zongtang (Chinese: 左宗棠), Shen Baozhen (Chinese: 沈葆禎) and Zhang Zhidong (Chinese: 張之洞). However, owing to the conservatives opposition and the problems of modernization, it failed finally.

Reforms were:

  • Industry and trade
    • Modern banks were built.
    • Many industries were built in the South of China.
  • Diplomatic modernization
    • The Zongli Yamen, a foreign office of the Qing dynasty, was set up in 1861.
    • In 1868, the Qing government sent its first official diplomatic mission aboard.

In 1856, some rebels were captured in the metropolitan province (Zhili) and several boys under 15 years old were with them. The adults were beheaded and the children were castrated. A boy named Li Liu was the son of a rebel named Li Mao-tz'e (Li Maozi) who rebelled on the border of Henan (Honan) and Anhui (Anhwei) provinces in 1872. Li Liu was captured when he was 6 years old by Qing government forces in Anhui (Anhwei) and handed over to Yulu (Yu Luh) (裕禄), the governor of Anhui. He was imprisoned in the office of the district magistrate of Huaining (Hwaining) until he reached 11 years old in 1877 and was then ordered to be handed to the Imperial Household Department for castration. His case appeared on 28 November 1877 in the Peking Gazette.[7][8][9][10]

B. The hundred days' reform (1898)

Liang Qichao - a leader of the Hundred Day's Reform

With the failure of the Self-Strengthening Movenment, the defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War and the scramble for concessions, many Chinese leaders realised that reforms were urgently needed. Thus, the Hundred Day's Reform (Chinese: 戊戌變法; 11 June 1898 - 21 September 1898) was started in 1898. The leaders of the reform were Guangxu Emperor, Kang Youwei (Chinese: 康有為) and Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超). Eventually, it ended in a coup d'état led by Empress Dowager Cixi.

The main reforms were:

  • Political reforms
    • Useless government posts were to be abolished.
  • Military reform
    • The army and navy were to have modern weapons.
    • A national militia would be organised.

The majority population of the hundreds of thousands of people living in the inner "Tartar" city of Beijing during the Qing were Manchus and Mongol bannermen from the Eight Banners after they were moved there in 1644.[11][12][13] During the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, western and Japanese soldiers mass raped Manchu women and Mongol banner women.

Indeed, it appeared common practise for the invading soldiers to capture women, regardless of class or creed, to rape them. This was done by forcing them to work as sex slaves in rape-manors they had established in the Beijing hutongs (alleys formed by siheyuan residences). This excerpt from the “Miscellaneous Notes about the Boxers,” written by Japanese journalist Sawara Tokusuke, describes one such rape-manor:

“The Allied forces would frequently capture women, no matter virtuous, wretched, old or young, and would, as much as they could, displace them to Biaobei alleys and to live in row houses there as prostitutes for the soldiery. The West end of this alley the path would have been blocked off, in order to prevent escape, the East end was the only way in or out. This way was guarded. Any person from the Allied forces could enter for pleasure and rape to his heart’s desire.” (Sawara 268)

Sawara also reports on the seven daughters of the Manchu bannerman Yulu 裕禄, the Viceroy of the province of Zhili (present day Hebei). Yulu was on good terms with the invaders. He was a man who always sought to create good impressions, and due to this, the British Consul at Tianjin offered him asylum on board of one of Her Majesty’s ships for his loyalty to the British (Fleming 84). Later in the war Yulu perished in the battle for Yangcun. When Beijing fell, the Allies abducted all seven of his daughters and then sent them to the Heavenly Palace in Beijing where they were violated repeatedly. Then they were held captive as sex slaves for the soldiers in one of the rape-manors mentioned above (Sawara 268).[14] His efforts to please the British ultimately exploded in his face which his daughters paid the price for; no good deed goes unpunished.

Another story relays the fate that befell the women of Chongqi’s household. Chongqi 崇绮 was a nobleman from the Mongolian Alute clan and scholar of high standing in the Imperial Manchu court. He was also the father-in-law of the previous Emperor. His wife and one of his daughters, much like Yulu’s daughters, were captured by the invading soldiers. They were taken to the Heavenly Temple, held captive and were then brutally raped by dozens of Eight Nations Alliance soldiers during the entire course of the Beijing occupation. Only after the Eight Nations Alliance’s retreat did the mother and daughter return home, only to hang themselves from the rafters. Upon this discovery, Chongqi, out of despair, soon followed suit (Sawara 266). He hanged himself on August 26st, 1900. His son, Baochu, and many other family members commited suicide shortly after (Fang 75).[15]

Russian Cossack soldiers slaughtered 4,500 Manchus and 900 Daurs (1,266 households) [16] Many Manchu villages were burned by Cossacks in the massacre according to Victor Zatsepine.[17]

Many Manchu Bannermen in Beijing supported the Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion and shared their anti=foreign sentiment.[18] The Manchu Bannermen were devastated by the fighting during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion, sustaining massive casualties during the wars and subsequently being driven into extreme suffering and hardship.[19]

Manchu property including horses and cattles were looted while their villages were burnt by the Russian Cossacks as Manchus were driven out as refugees and slaughtered by Russian cossacks according to S. M. Shirokogoroff when he was in Heilongjiang along the Amur river garrison of Heihe (Aihun).[20] Manchu banner garrisons were annihilated on 5 roads by Russians as they suffered most of the casualties. Manchu Shoufu killed himself during the battle of Peking and the Manchu Lao She's father was killed by western soldiers in the battle as the Manchu banner armies of the Center Division of the Guards Army, Tiger Spirit Division and Peking Field force in the Metropolitan banners were slaughtered by the western soldiers. Baron von Ketteler, the German diplomat was murdered by Captian Enhai, a Manchu from the Tiger Spirit Division of Aisin Gioro Zaiyi, Prince Duan and the Inner city Legation Quarters and Catholic cathedral were both attacked by Manchu bannermen. Manchu bannermen were slaughtered by the Eight Nation Alliance all over Manchuria and Beijing because most of the Manchu bannermen supported the Boxers in the Boxer rebellion.[21] The clan system of the Manchus in Aigun was obliterated by the despoliation of the area at the hands of the Russian invaders.[22]

Qing government and society

Politics

The Manchus changed their ways to be more like the Chinese in order to rule them better. The Manchus started wearing Chinese clothes and writing in Chinese. They began to enjoy Chinese food and art. One of the Manchu emperors, Qianlong Emperor, began to worry about how much like the Chinese the Manchus were becoming and he tried to get Manchus to be more Manchu. Qianlong Emperor made Manchus ride horses and shoot bows and arrows so that they would remember where they came from. The Chinese people used different types of clothes like maccukau, konaha, schinin and sakahn.

Regional Development

  • Guangdong

In the early Qing, Guangdong was a province. There were totally 79 counties. In 1911, it was checked that there were 5,041,780 households, approximately 28,001,564 people. The famous mountains in Guangdong were Lingchau, Huangling and Luofu. Dongjiang, Beijiang and Xijiang were the most important rivers in Guangdong. Guangzhou, Zhaoqing, Xiamen and Fujian were the major Guangdong cities.

References

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  2. Widmer, Eric D. (1976). East Asian research center (Cambridge, Mass.). ed. The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking During the Eighteenth Century (illustrated ed.). Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 188. ISBN 0674781295 . ISSN 0073-0483 . https://books.google.com/books?id=3ZjnRS1g6zkC&pg=PA188&dq=albazinians+widows&hl=en&sa=X&ei=JJ8PVYHBK4ObgwSk_4KgBg&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=albazinians%20widows&f=false. 
  3. Aldrich, M.A. (2008). The Search for a Vanishing Beijing: A Guide to China's Capital Through the Ages (illustrated, reprint ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 177. ISBN 9622097774 . https://books.google.com/books?id=TMMvxX67FpIC&pg=PA177&dq=albazin+cossacks+marry&hl=en&sa=X&ei=nKAPVeyyHsP4gwSegoJw&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=albazin%20cossacks%20marry&f=false. 
  4. Baddeley, John Frederick (1919). Baddeley, John Frederick. ed. Russia, Mongolia, China: Being Some Record of the Relations Between Them from the Beginning of the XVIIth Century to the Death of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, A.D. 1602-1676; Rendered Mainly in the Form of Narratives Dictated Or Written by the Envoys Sent by the Russian Tsars, Or ..., Volume 2. Macmillan, limited. p. 431. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/Volume 2 of Russia, Mongolia, China: Being Some Record of the Relations Between Them from the Beginning of the XVIIth Century to the Death of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, A.D. 1602-1676, Rendered Mainly in the Form of Narratives Dictated Or Written by the Envoys Sent by the Russian Tsars, Or Their Voevodas in Siberia to the Kalmuk and Mongol Khans & Princes; and to the Emperors of China, John F. Baddeley Russia, Mongolia, China: Being Some Record of the Relations Between Them from the Beginning of the XVIIth Century to the Death of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, A.D. 1602-1676; Rendered Mainly in the Form of Narratives Dictated Or Written by the Envoys Sent by the Russian Tsars, Or Their Voevodas in Siberia, to the Kalmuk and Mongol Khans & Princes, and to the Emperors of China; with Introductions, Historical and Geographical; Also a Series of Maps Showing the Progress of Geographical Knowledge in Regard to Northern Asia During the XVIth, XVIIth & Early XVIIIth Centuries. The Texts Taken More Especially from Manuscripts in the Moscow Foreign Office Archives, John Frederick Baddeley|Volume 2 of Russia, Mongolia, China: Being Some Record of the Relations Between Them from the Beginning of the XVIIth Century to the Death of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, A.D. 1602-1676, Rendered Mainly in the Form of Narratives Dictated Or Written by the Envoys Sent by the Russian Tsars, Or Their Voevodas in Siberia to the Kalmuk and Mongol Khans & Princes; and to the Emperors of China, John F. Baddeley Russia, Mongolia, China: Being Some Record of the Relations Between Them from the Beginning of the XVIIth Century to the Death of the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, A.D. 1602-1676; Rendered Mainly in the Form of Narratives Dictated Or Written by the Envoys Sent by the Russian Tsars, Or Their Voevodas in Siberia, to the Kalmuk and Mongol Khans & Princes, and to the Emperors of China; with Introductions, Historical and Geographical; Also a Series of Maps Showing the Progress of Geographical Knowledge in Regard to Northern Asia During the XVIth, XVIIth & Early XVIIIth Centuries. The Texts Taken More Especially from Manuscripts in the Moscow Foreign Office Archives, John Frederick Baddeley]] . https://books.google.com/books?id=q9pXAAAAYAAJ&q=An+old+image+of+Saint+Nicholas+brought+by+our+cossacks+from+Albazin+in+1685+hangs+on+the+wall+behind+the+altar.+...+There+are+22+among+them+who+have+been+baptized+;+but+they+are+so+connected+with+the+Mantchoos+by+marriage+and+by++their+dependence+as+subjects+that+it+is+very+difficult+to+distinguish+them&dq=An+old+image+of+Saint+Nicholas+brought+by+our+cossacks+from+Albazin+in+1685+hangs+on+the+wall+behind+the+altar.+...+There+are+22+among+them+who+have+been+baptized+;+but+they+are+so+connected+with+the+Mantchoos+by+marriage+and+by++their+dependence+as+subjects+that+it+is+very+difficult+to+distinguish+them&hl=en&sa=X&ei=FqIPVdiNLLPfsAT80ILYCA&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA. 
  5. Standaert, N. (2001). Standaert, Professor of Sinology Nicolas; Tiedemann, R. G.. eds. Handbook of Christianity in China, Part 1. Brill's Companions to Asian Studies Online I, ISBN: 9789004389212 Handbook of Christianity in China, N. Standaert Handbook of Christianity in China: Handbuch der Orientalistik / hrsg. von B. Spuler .... Abt. 4. China. Volume 15 of Handbook of Oriental Studies Volume 15 of Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 4 China Handbuch der Orientalistik: China (illustrated ed.). Brill. p. 368. ISBN 9004114319 . https://books.google.com/books?id=KzZtAAAAMAAJ&q=The+Russians+retreated+to+Siberia,+except+for+thirty-one+Cossacks+and+some+deserters+and+fugitives+who+joined+the+...+By+marriage+with+Manchu+women,+they&dq=The+Russians+retreated+to+Siberia,+except+for+thirty-one+Cossacks+and+some+deserters+and+fugitives+who+joined+the+...+By+marriage+with+Manchu+women,+they&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UqIPVYmTAYihNv2ZhPgL&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAA. 
  6. Widmer, Eric D. (1976). East Asian research center (Cambridge, Mass.). ed. The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking During the Eighteenth Century (illustrated ed.). Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 188. ISBN 0674781295 . ISSN 0073-0483 . https://books.google.com/books?id=3ZjnRS1g6zkC&pg=PA21#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  7. China. Hai guan zong shui wu si shu (1875). Medical Reports, Issues 9-16. Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs.. p. 52. https://books.google.com/books?id=2B9BAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA5-PA52&dq=castrated+sons+imperial+household&hl=en&newbks=1#v=onepage&q=castrated%20sons%20imperial%20household&f=false. 
  8. Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 25. 1880. pp. 98, 99. https://books.google.com/books?id=fLIRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA99&dq=castrated+sons+imperial+household&hl=en&newbks=1#v=onepage&q=castrated%20sons%20imperial%20household&f=false. 
  9. United States. Congress. House. House Documents, Otherwise Publ. as Executive Documents: 13th Congress, 2d Session-49th Congress, 1st Session, Volume 24. United States congressional serial set. p. 4,5. https://books.google.com/books?id=LpkFAAAAQAAJ&pg=RA7-PA4&dq=castrated+sons+imperial+household&hl=en&newbks=1#v=onepage&q=castrated%20sons%20imperial%20household&f=false. 
  10. "Correspondence Respecting the Alleged Existence of Chinese Slavery in Hong Kong: Presented to Both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty". Great Britain. Parliament (G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode) Volume 3185 of C (Series) (Great Britain. Parliament): 60. 1882. https://books.google.com/books?id=hswPjsESizYC&pg=PA60&dq=castrated+sons+imperial+household&hl=en&newbks=1#v=onepage&q=castrated%20sons%20imperial%20household&f=false. 
  11. Ransmeier, Johanna S. (2017). Sold People: Traffickers and Family Life in North China (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0674971973 . https://books.google.com/books?id=Qj1YDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA91#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  12. Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2017). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. Studies on Ethnic Groups in China. University of Washington Press. p. 38. ISBN 0295997486 . https://books.google.com/books?id=OXQkDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA38#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  13. Fu, Chonglan; Cao, Wenming (2019). An Urban History of China. China Connections: Springer. p. 83. ISBN 9811382115 . https://books.google.com/books?id=YDulDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA83#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  14. Sawara Tokusuke, “Miscellaneous Notes about the Boxers” (Quanshi zaji), in Compiled Materials on the Boxers (Yihetuan wenxian huibian), ed. Zhongguo shixue hui (Taipei: Dingwen, 1973), 1: 266-268.
  15. Chao-ying Fang. “Chongqi.” In Eminent Chinese of the Qing Period: (1644-1911/2), 74–75. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group, 2018.
  16. 满族4500人,达斡尔族900人,共1266户。 其中汉族散居于江东六十四屯各处,多数为山东和山西两省的移民。 满族和达斡尔族居民与汉族居民在语言、服装和风俗习惯上基本相同。
  17. Higgins, Andrew (March 26, 2020). On Russia-China Border, Selective Memory of Massacre Works for Both Sides. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/26/world/europe/russia-china-border.html. 
  18. Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2021). Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World. Princeton University Press. p. 174. ISBN 0691224986 . https://books.google.com/books?id=sOcSEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA174&dq=bannermen+by+slogans+of+the+boxers&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=1&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjK46fYhcf0AhXzjYkEHY1rDAsQ6AF6BAgGEAI. 
  19. Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2017). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. Studies on Ethnic Groups in China. University of Washington Press. p. 80. ISBN 0295997486 . https://books.google.com/books?id=OXQkDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA80#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  20. Shirokorgoroff, Sergei Mikhailovich (1924). "Social Organization of the Manchus: A Study of the Manchu Clan Organization". Royal Asiatic Society, North China Branch, (Shanghai:) Volume 3 of Extra volume Volume 3 of Journal / Extra volume: North China Branch, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland North China Branch Volume 3 of Publications, North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society Volume 3 of Publications, Extra, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland North-China Branch Volume 3 of Royal Asiatic society. North China branch. [Publications] Extra vol. III: 4. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZERxAAAAMAAJ&q=inauthor:%22S.+M.+Shirokogoroff%22&dq=inauthor:%22S.+M.+Shirokogoroff%22&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=1&printsec=frontcover&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjC4o7mhsf0AhWyjokEHbauBpYQ6AF6BAgGEAI. 
  21. Rhoads, Edward J. M. (2017). Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. Studies on Ethnic Groups in China. University of Washington Press. p. 72. ISBN 0295997486 . https://books.google.com/books?id=OXQkDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA72&dq=cossacks+manchu+cattle++horses&hl=en&newbks=1&newbks_redir=0&source=gb_mobile_search&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjEi7jG_rP0AhUhkokEHeclAYAQ6AF6BAgEEAM. 
  22. Chang, Yin-t'ang (1956). A Regional Handbook on Northeast China. Volume 61 of Human Relations Area Files: Subcontractor's monograph, HRAF Subcontractor's monograph: The Institute. p. 110. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/Contributor Human Relations Area Files, inc|Contributor Human Relations Area Files, inc]] . https://books.google.com/books?id=zvI4AAAAIAAJ. 

Further reading