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Монгол улс
Mongol uls
Monggol ulus.svg
Mongγol ulus
Flag of Mongolia
Location of Mongolia
and largest city
Ulan Bator
Official languages Mongolian
Mongolian Cyrillic
Mongolian script[1]
Ethnic groups
95.35% Mongol,
3.86% Kazakh
0.8% others[2]
Demonym(s) Mongol, Mongolian[3]
Government Parliamentary republic
• President
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
Chimed Saikhanbileg
Legislature State Great Khural
• Formation of the Xiongnu confederation
209 BC
• Formation of the Mongol Empire
• Independence declared (from Qing Dynasty)
December 29, 1911
• Total
1,564,115.75 km2 (603,908.47 sq mi) (19th)
• Water (%)
• 2010 census
• Density
1.76/km2 (4.6/sq mi) (236th)

Mongolia is a country between China and Russia, in Asia.

Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia and Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and the People's Republic of China to the south, east and west. The capital and largest city, Ulaanbaatar, is where about 38% of the population live. Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.

Until recently, most of the people there were Buddhists. Many of them are nomads (people who always move and do not stay in one home), but this is changing. The largest city, and capital city is Ulaanbaatar. This has been spelled Ulan Bator/ Ulaan Battor and other ways in the past. The north and east parts of the country have many mountains. Part of the south part is the Gobi Desert. There are 2,791,272 people living in Mongolia. The country is the 18th biggest country in the World, with an area of 1,564,116 square kilometres. The crime rate is very low. Their language is Mongolian, but some know English, Chinese and Russian.

Mongolia has the least population density of all independent countries in the world.[11][12][13][note 1]


The area which is Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires. This was until the great 'Mongol Empire' was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. After the Yuan Dynasty collapsed, the Mongols became nomads again. After the 16th century, Mongolia were influenced by Tibetan Buddhism. By the end of the 17th century, most of Mongolia was a part of an area ruled by the Qing Dynasty. When the Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1911, Mongolia declared independence. But they had to fight against them. They were helped by the Soviet Union. In 1921, the world accepted its independence. Mongolia is still mainly rural. The Mongolian Red Cross Society was set up in 1939. It has its headquarters in Ulan Bator. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia's interest in Mongolia has declined. China and South Korea are currently Mongolia's main trade and political partners.


Mongolia is a parliamentary republic. People vote for their government. The President of Mongolia is elected to a four-year term, and cannot stand in a Presidential Election more than twice. The current President is Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj. He is a two-time former prime minister and he was first elected as President on May 24, 2009. Elbegdorj was re-elected on 26 June 2013 for his second term as President.


A NASA satellite photo of Mongolia
Mongolia has a steppe climate. It has very cold winters and mild summers. Recently, winters have become very cold. This has killed many people and cattle. On June 2nd, 2008 52 people and 200,000 head of cattle died in heavy blizzards in Mongolia.[14]

On March 1st to 2nd, a heavy dust storm hit N.E. China and parts of Mongolia. and ended over North Korea and South Korea on the 4th [15]

21 people died in a rural Mongolian blizzard on May 8th 2008.[16] parts of the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia were also affected on the 8th of May 2008.

On June 2 2009, it was said that 15 people and 10,000 head of cattle had died by this date in Mongolia.

April 1st and 2nd, 2010 had temperatures plummet to -50 degrees in Mongolia’s Tuul valley, A nomad called Urna said she bought 400 bundles of grass to feed the animals in preparation for more bad weather. The Mongolian Red Cross have said that about 4,500,000 livestock died as a result of the bad weather this year.[17][18] Tume, who lives in Ulan Bator said that he had noticed that there were several really harsh winters in a row too. He blamed climate change, but experts said that overgrazing by cattle had also killed of most of the country’s grassland.[18]

Mongolia known as the "Land of the Eternal Blue Sky" or "Country of Blue Sky" (Mongolian: Mönkh khökh tengeriin oron - Мөнх хөх тэнгэрийн орон) because it has over 250 sunny days a year.[19][20][21][22]


Mongolia is the world's 19th-largest country (after Iran). It is significantly larger than the next-largest country, Peru. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan but its westernmost point is only 38 kilometers (24 mi) away from Kazakhstan.

The geography of Mongolia is varied, with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Most of Mongolia consists of steppes, with forested areas comprising 11.2% of the total land area.[23]  The highest point in Mongolia is the Khüiten Peak in the Tavan bogd massif. It's height is 4,374 m (14,350 ft).


Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces called 'aimags'. The provinces are divided into 329 districts called 'sums'.[24]


The official language of Mongolia is Mongolian, and is spoken by 95% of the population. A variety of dialects of Oirat and Buryatare spoken across the country. Turkic languages, such as Kazakh and Tuvan, are also spoken in the west of the country.  

Today, Mongolian is written using the Cyrillic alphabet, although in the past it was written using the Mongolian script. The traditional alphabet is being slowly reintroduced through schools recently.[25]

Russian is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia. However English has been gradually replacing Russian as the second language. Korean has gained popularity as tens of thousands of Mongolians work and study in South Korea. Interest in Chinese has been growing because of the neighboring power.

Swine flu

Mongolia is currently free of bird and swine flu, but 103 air travelers who were suspected victims, and the plane crew of 6, were quarantined for 7 days in Ulaan Bator(Ulaanbaatar) in May 2009.

It may have come over the border from the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia.

National Holidays

Date Holiday
1st January New year
January Or February Old new year (Tsagaan sar)
8th March International Woman's Day
1st June Children's day
11-12th July Naadam Holiday
26th November Independence day

Other pages

Other websites



  1. "Official Documents to be in Mongolian Script" (in Chinese). UB Post. 2011-06-21. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
  2. Mongolia National Census 2010 Provision Results. National Statistical Office of Mongolia (in Mongolian.)
  3. "Mongolian" is included minorities like Kazakhs or Tuvans.
  4. Date: (2011-06-13). "Momgolia National Census 2010 Preliminary Results". National Statistical Office of Mongolia. Retrieved 2011-06-14.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Mongolia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
  6. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
  7. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  8. "Mongolia Standard Time is GMT (UTC) +8, some areas of Mongolia use GMT (UTC) + 7". Time Retrieved 2007-09-30.
  9. "The Mongolian government has chosen not to move to Summer Time". World Time Retrieved 2007-09-30.
  10. "Mongolian Time Zones". Retrieved 2011-05-20.
  11. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (.PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved on 12 March 2009.
  12. "Population density (people per sq. km of land area)". The World Bank. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  13. "Population of all countries from largest to smallest". World Atlas. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
  18. 18.0 18.1,,5427974,00.html?maca=en-rss-en-all-1573-rdf
  24. Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, Foreign Service office of Montsame News Agency, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 46

General sources


  1. The United Nations source does not order the countries according to their population densities, but mentions the population count and the area of the countries. In the World Atlas reference, sorting the countries by Population Density (Sq. Km.) shows that Mongolia is the least densely populated. The World Bank source might appear to contradict this fact, but Greenland is not an independent country; therefore, it is not considered in this case.