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R (programming language)
Appeared in  August 1993  ^{[1]}

Designed by  Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman (statistician) 
Developer  R Core Team^{[2]} 
Stable release  4.0.2 ("Taking Off Again")^{[3]} / June 22, 2020 
Influenced by 

Influenced  Julia^{[4]} 
License  GNU GPL v2^{[5]} 
Usual filename extensions 

Website  {{ 
R Programming at Wikibooks 
R is a programming language and free software environment for statistics^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]}. R is a language built for a specific purpose. It is strictly designed for statistical analysis. The algorithms for many statistical models are devised in R. Precisely R is the language of Statistical Analyzers. It’s an open source and the best suite for the statisticians to develop statistical softwares. R is putting utmost efforts to walk parallelly to Python.
Contents
Usage in other areas
The R language was originally made for statistics. But today, it is also used in many scientific fields including ecology^{[12]}^{[13]}.
Development history
A list of changes in R releases is maintained in various "news" files at CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network).^{[14]} Some highlights are listed below for several major releases.
Release  Date  Description 

0.16  This is the last test version.  
0.49  19970423  This is the oldest source release which is currently available on CRAN.^{[15]} CRAN is started on this date, with 3 mirrors that initially hosted 12 packages.^{[16]} 
0.60  19971205  R becomes an official part of the GNU Project. The code is hosted and maintained on CVS. 
0.65.1  19991007  First versions of update.packages and install.packages functions for downloading and installing packages from CRAN.^{[17]} 
1.0  20000229  The developers declared that it is stable enough for production use.^{[18]} 
1.4  20011219  S4 methods are introduced and the first version for Mac OS X is made available soon after. 
1.8  20031008  Introduced a flexible condition handling mechanism for signalling and handling condition objects. 
2.0  20041004  Introduced fast loading of data with minimal expense of system memory. 
2.1  20050418  Support for UTF8 encoding. They also started of internationalization and localization for different languages. 
2.6.2  20080208  Last version to support Windows 95, 98, Me and NT 4.0^{[19]} 
2.11  20100422  Support for Windows 64 bit systems. 
2.12.2  20110225  Last version to support Windows 2000^{[20]} 
2.13  20110414  Adding a new compiler function that allows speeding up functions by converting them to bytecode. 
2.14  20111031  Added mandatory namespaces for packages. Added a new parallel package. 
2.15  20120330  New load balancing functions. Improved serialization speed for long vectors. 
3.0.0  20130403  Support for numeric index values 2^{31} and larger on 64 bit systems. 
3.3.3  20170306  Last version to support Microsoft Windows XP. 
3.4.0  20170421  Justintime compilation (JIT) of functions and loops to bytecode enabled by default. 
3.5.0  20180423  Packages bytecompiled on installation by default. Compact internal representation of integer sequences. Added a new serialization format to support compact internal representations. 
3.6.0  20190426  
4.0.0  20200424 
Communities
R has local communities worldwide for users to share ideas and learn.^{[21]}^{[22]}
There are a growing number of R events bringing its users together, such as conferences (e.g. useR!, WhyR?, conectaR, SatRdays)^{[23]}^{[24]} and other meetups.^{[25]}
useR! conferences
The official annual gathering of R users is called "useR!".^{[26]} The first such event was useR! 2004 in May 2004, Vienna, Austria.^{[27]} After skipping 2005, the useR! conference has been held annually.^{[28]} Subsequent conferences have included:^{[26]}
 useR! 2006, Vienna, Austria
 useR! 2007, Ames, Iowa, USA
 useR! 2008, Dortmund, Germany
 useR! 2009, Rennes, France
 useR! 2010, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
 useR! 2011, Coventry, United Kingdom
 useR! 2012, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
 useR! 2013, Albacete, Spain
 useR! 2014, Los Angeles, California, USA
 useR! 2015, Aalborg, Denmark
 useR! 2016, Stanford, California, USA
 useR! 2017, Brussels, Belgium
 useR! 2018, Brisbane, Australia
 useR! 2019, Toulouse, France
Future conferences planned are as follows:^{[26]}^{[29]}
 useR! 2020, St. Louis, Missouri, USA (Canceled)
 useR! 2021, Zurich, Switzerland
The R Journal
The R Journal is the open access refereed journal of the R project. It features articles on the use and development of the R language.
Basic syntax
The following examples illustrate the basic syntax of the language and use of the commandline interface.
In R, the generally preferred^{[30]} assignment operator is an arrow made from two characters <
. Although =
can be used instead.^{[31]}
> x < 1:6 # Create vector.
> y < x^2 # Create vector by formula.
> print(y) # Print the vector’s contents.
[1] 1 4 9 16 25 36
> mean(y) # Arithmetic mean of vector.
[1] 15.16667
> var(y) # Sample variance of vector.
[1] 178.9667
> model < lm(y ~ x) # Linear regression model y = A + B * x.
> print(model) # Print the model’s results.
Call:
lm(formula = y ~ x)
Coefficients:
(Intercept) x
9.333 7.000
> summary(model) # Display an indepth summary of the model.
Call:
lm(formula = y ~ x)
Residuals:
1 2 3 4 5 6
3.3333 0.6667 2.6667 2.6667 0.6667 3.3333
Coefficients:
Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>t)
(Intercept) 9.3333 2.8441 3.282 0.030453 *
x 7.0000 0.7303 9.585 0.000662 ***

Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1
Residual standard error: 3.055 on 4 degrees of freedom
Multiple Rsquared: 0.9583, Adjusted Rsquared: 0.9478
Fstatistic: 91.88 on 1 and 4 DF, pvalue: 0.000662
> par(mfrow = c(2, 2)) # Create a 2 by 2 layout for figures.
> plot(model) # Output diagnostic plots of the model.
References
 ↑ ^{1.0} ^{1.1} Lua error in ...nsions/Scribunto/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
 ↑ Hornik, Kurt (November 26, 2015). "R FAQ". 2.1 What is R?. https://cran.rproject.org/doc/FAQ/RFAQ.html#WhatisR_003f. Retrieved 20180805.
 ↑ "The Comprehensive R Archive Network". https://cran.rproject.org/.
 ↑ "Introduction". The Julia Manual. https://docs.julialang.org/en/stable/manual/introduction/#manintroduction1.
 ↑ "R license". rproject. https://www.rproject.org/COPYING.
 ↑ Crawley, M. J. (2012). The R book. John Wiley & Sons.
 ↑ Dalgaard, P. (2008). Introductory statistics with R. Springer.
 ↑ Maronna, R. A., Martin, R. D., & Yohai, V. J. (2019). Robust statistics: theory and methods (with R). John Wiley & Sons.
 ↑ Ugarte, M. D., Militino, A. F., & Arnholt, A. T. (2008). Probability and Statistics with R. CRC Press.
 ↑ Bruce, P., Bruce, A., & Gedeck, P. (2020). Practical Statistics for Data Scientists: 50+ Essential Concepts Using R and Python. O'Reilly Media.
 ↑ Kruschke, J. (2014). Doing Bayesian data analysis: A tutorial with R, JAGS, and Stan. Academic Press.
 ↑ Borcard, D., Gillet, F., & Legendre, P. (2018). Numerical ecology with R. Springer.
 ↑ Bolker, B. M. (2008). Ecological models and data in R. Princeton University Press.
 ↑ Changes in versions 3.0.0 onward: "R News". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS. Retrieved 20140703.
Earlier change logs (by major release number):
 "NEWS". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS. Retrieved 20200628.
 "NEWS.3". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS.3. Retrieved 20200628.
 "NEWS.2". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS.2. Retrieved 20170408.
 "NEWS.1". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS.1. Retrieved 20170408.
 "NEWS.0". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS.0. Retrieved 20170408.
 ↑ "Index of /src/base/R0". https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/R0/.
 ↑ "ANNOUNCE: CRAN". https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/rannounce/1997/000001.html.
 ↑ https://cran.rproject.org/src/base/NEWS.0
 ↑ Peter Dalgaard. "R1.0.0 is released". https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/rannounce/2000/000127.html. Retrieved 20090606.
 ↑ https://cranarchive.rproject.org/bin/windows/base/old/2.7.0/CHANGES.R2.7.0
 ↑ "R FAQ". https://cran.rproject.org/bin/windows/base/rwFAQ.html#HowdoIinstallRforWindows_003f. Retrieved 20200320.
 ↑ "Local R User Group Directory". http://blog.revolutionanalytics.com/localrgroups.html. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
 ↑ "A list of R conferences and meetings". https://jumpingrivers.github.io/meetingsR/index.html. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
 ↑ "official website of WhyR? conference". http://whyr.pl/. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
 ↑ "SatRdays listing". https://satrdays.org/. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
 ↑ "R Project for Statistical Computing". https://www.meetup.com/topics/rprojectforstatisticalcomputing/. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
 ↑ ^{26.0} ^{26.1} ^{26.2} "R: Conferences". 20191101. https://www.rproject.org/conferences/.
 ↑ "useR! 2004  The R User Conference". 27 May 2004. http://www.ci.tuwien.ac.at/Conferences/useR2004/. Retrieved 20180909.
 ↑ R Project (9 August 2013). "Rrelated Conferences". https://www.rproject.org/conferences. Retrieved 20190815.
 ↑ "UseR! 2021  The R User Conference". https://user2021.rproject.org/. Retrieved 20200323.
 ↑ most used assignment operator in R is
<
 R Development Core Team. "Writing R Extensions". https://cran.rproject.org/doc/manuals/Rexts.html#TidyingRcode. Retrieved 20180911. "[...] we recommend the consistent use of the preferred assignment operator ‘<’ (rather than ‘=’) for assignment."
 "Google's R Style Guide". https://google.github.io/styleguide/Rguide.xml#assignment. Retrieved 20180911.
 Wickham, Hadley. "Style Guide". http://stat405.had.co.nz/rstyle.html. Retrieved 20180911.
 Bengtsson, Henrik (January 2009). "R Coding Conventions (RCC) – a draft". https://docs.google.com/document/preview?id=1esDVxyWvH8AsXVJa8oqWaHLs4stGlIbk8kLc5VlII&pli=1. Retrieved 20180911.
 ↑ R Development Core Team. "Assignments with the = Operator". https://developer.rproject.org/equalAssign.html. Retrieved 20180911.
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