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R (programming language)
|Appeared in||August 1993|
|Designed by||Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman (statistician)|
|Developer||R Core Team|
|Stable release||4.0.2 ("Taking Off Again") / June 22, 2020|
|License||GNU GPL v2|
|Usual filename extensions|
|R Programming at Wikibooks|
R is a programming language and free software environment for statistics. R is a language built for a specific purpose. It is strictly designed for statistical analysis. The algorithms for many statistical models are devised in R. Precisely R is the language of Statistical Analyzers. It’s an open source and the best suite for the statisticians to develop statistical softwares. R is putting utmost efforts to walk parallelly to Python.
Usage in other areas
A list of changes in R releases is maintained in various "news" files at CRAN (Comprehensive R Archive Network). Some highlights are listed below for several major releases.
|0.16||This is the last test version.|
|0.49||1997-04-23||This is the oldest source release which is currently available on CRAN. CRAN is started on this date, with 3 mirrors that initially hosted 12 packages.|
|0.60||1997-12-05||R becomes an official part of the GNU Project. The code is hosted and maintained on CVS.|
|0.65.1||1999-10-07||First versions of update.packages and install.packages functions for downloading and installing packages from CRAN.|
|1.0||2000-02-29||The developers declared that it is stable enough for production use.|
|1.4||2001-12-19||S4 methods are introduced and the first version for Mac OS X is made available soon after.|
|1.8||2003-10-08||Introduced a flexible condition handling mechanism for signalling and handling condition objects.|
|2.0||2004-10-04||Introduced fast loading of data with minimal expense of system memory.|
|2.1||2005-04-18||Support for UTF-8 encoding. They also started of internationalization and localization for different languages.|
|2.6.2||2008-02-08||Last version to support Windows 95, 98, Me and NT 4.0|
|2.11||2010-04-22||Support for Windows 64 bit systems.|
|2.12.2||2011-02-25||Last version to support Windows 2000|
|2.13||2011-04-14||Adding a new compiler function that allows speeding up functions by converting them to byte-code.|
|2.14||2011-10-31||Added mandatory namespaces for packages. Added a new parallel package.|
|2.15||2012-03-30||New load balancing functions. Improved serialization speed for long vectors.|
|3.0.0||2013-04-03||Support for numeric index values 231 and larger on 64 bit systems.|
|3.3.3||2017-03-06||Last version to support Microsoft Windows XP.|
|3.4.0||2017-04-21||Just-in-time compilation (JIT) of functions and loops to byte-code enabled by default.|
|3.5.0||2018-04-23||Packages byte-compiled on installation by default. Compact internal representation of integer sequences. Added a new serialization format to support compact internal representations.|
The official annual gathering of R users is called "useR!". The first such event was useR! 2004 in May 2004, Vienna, Austria. After skipping 2005, the useR! conference has been held annually. Subsequent conferences have included:
- useR! 2006, Vienna, Austria
- useR! 2007, Ames, Iowa, USA
- useR! 2008, Dortmund, Germany
- useR! 2009, Rennes, France
- useR! 2010, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA
- useR! 2011, Coventry, United Kingdom
- useR! 2012, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
- useR! 2013, Albacete, Spain
- useR! 2014, Los Angeles, California, USA
- useR! 2015, Aalborg, Denmark
- useR! 2016, Stanford, California, USA
- useR! 2017, Brussels, Belgium
- useR! 2018, Brisbane, Australia
- useR! 2019, Toulouse, France
The R Journal
The R Journal is the open access refereed journal of the R project. It features articles on the use and development of the R language.
The following examples illustrate the basic syntax of the language and use of the command-line interface.
> x <- 1:6 # Create vector. > y <- x^2 # Create vector by formula. > print(y) # Print the vector’s contents.  1 4 9 16 25 36 > mean(y) # Arithmetic mean of vector.  15.16667 > var(y) # Sample variance of vector.  178.9667 > model <- lm(y ~ x) # Linear regression model y = A + B * x. > print(model) # Print the model’s results. Call: lm(formula = y ~ x) Coefficients: (Intercept) x -9.333 7.000 > summary(model) # Display an in-depth summary of the model. Call: lm(formula = y ~ x) Residuals: 1 2 3 4 5 6 3.3333 -0.6667 -2.6667 -2.6667 -0.6667 3.3333 Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|) (Intercept) -9.3333 2.8441 -3.282 0.030453 * x 7.0000 0.7303 9.585 0.000662 *** --- Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1 Residual standard error: 3.055 on 4 degrees of freedom Multiple R-squared: 0.9583, Adjusted R-squared: 0.9478 F-statistic: 91.88 on 1 and 4 DF, p-value: 0.000662 > par(mfrow = c(2, 2)) # Create a 2 by 2 layout for figures. > plot(model) # Output diagnostic plots of the model.
- Lua error in ...nsions/Scribunto/engines/LuaCommon/lualib/mwInit.lua at line 23: bad argument #1 to 'old_ipairs' (table expected, got nil).
- Hornik, Kurt (November 26, 2015). "R FAQ". 2.1 What is R?. https://cran.r-project.org/doc/FAQ/R-FAQ.html#What-is-R_003f. Retrieved 2018-08-05.
- "The Comprehensive R Archive Network". https://cran.r-project.org/.
- "Introduction". The Julia Manual. https://docs.julialang.org/en/stable/manual/introduction/#man-introduction-1.
- "R license". r-project. https://www.r-project.org/COPYING.
- Crawley, M. J. (2012). The R book. John Wiley & Sons.
- Dalgaard, P. (2008). Introductory statistics with R. Springer.
- Maronna, R. A., Martin, R. D., & Yohai, V. J. (2019). Robust statistics: theory and methods (with R). John Wiley & Sons.
- Ugarte, M. D., Militino, A. F., & Arnholt, A. T. (2008). Probability and Statistics with R. CRC Press.
- Bruce, P., Bruce, A., & Gedeck, P. (2020). Practical Statistics for Data Scientists: 50+ Essential Concepts Using R and Python. O'Reilly Media.
- Kruschke, J. (2014). Doing Bayesian data analysis: A tutorial with R, JAGS, and Stan. Academic Press.
- Borcard, D., Gillet, F., & Legendre, P. (2018). Numerical ecology with R. Springer.
- Bolker, B. M. (2008). Ecological models and data in R. Princeton University Press.
- Changes in versions 3.0.0 onward: "R News". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS. Retrieved 2014-07-03.
Earlier change logs (by major release number):
- "NEWS". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
- "NEWS.3". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS.3. Retrieved 2020-06-28.
- "NEWS.2". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS.2. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- "NEWS.1". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS.1. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- "NEWS.0". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS.0. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
- "Index of /src/base/R-0". https://cran.r-project.org/src/base/R-0/.
- "ANNOUNCE: CRAN". https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-announce/1997/000001.html.
- Peter Dalgaard. "R-1.0.0 is released". https://stat.ethz.ch/pipermail/r-announce/2000/000127.html. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
- "R FAQ". https://cran.r-project.org/bin/windows/base/rw-FAQ.html#How-do-I-install-R-for-Windows_003f. Retrieved 2020-03-20.
- "Local R User Group Directory". http://blog.revolutionanalytics.com/local-r-groups.html. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "A list of R conferences and meetings". https://jumpingrivers.github.io/meetingsR/index.html. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "official website of WhyR? conference". http://whyr.pl/. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "SatRdays listing". https://satrdays.org/. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
- "R Project for Statistical Computing". https://www.meetup.com/topics/r-project-for-statistical-computing/. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
- "R: Conferences". 2019-11-01. https://www.r-project.org/conferences/.
- "useR! 2004 - The R User Conference". 27 May 2004. http://www.ci.tuwien.ac.at/Conferences/useR-2004/. Retrieved 2018-09-09.
- R Project (9 August 2013). "R-related Conferences". https://www.r-project.org/conferences. Retrieved 2019-08-15.
- "UseR! 2021 - The R User Conference". https://user2021.r-project.org/. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
- most used assignment operator in R is
- R Development Core Team. "Writing R Extensions". https://cran.r-project.org/doc/manuals/R-exts.html#Tidying-R-code. Retrieved 2018-09-11. "[...] we recommend the consistent use of the preferred assignment operator ‘<-’ (rather than ‘=’) for assignment."
- "Google's R Style Guide". https://google.github.io/styleguide/Rguide.xml#assignment. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- Wickham, Hadley. "Style Guide". http://stat405.had.co.nz/r-style.html. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- Bengtsson, Henrik (January 2009). "R Coding Conventions (RCC) – a draft". https://docs.google.com/document/preview?id=1esDVxyWvH8AsX-VJa-8oqWaHLs4stGlIbk8kLc5VlII&pli=1. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- R Development Core Team. "Assignments with the = Operator". https://developer.r-project.org/equalAssign.html. Retrieved 2018-09-11.