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Kingston upon Hull
Hull shown within England
The unitary authorities of the Ceremonial East Riding.
1. East Riding of Yorkshire (Unitary)
2. Kingston upon Hull (Unitary)
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||Yorkshire and the Humber|
|Ceremonial county||East Riding of Yorkshire|
|Admin HQ||Kingston upon Hull|
|• Type||Unitary authority, City|
|• Governing body||Hull City Council|
|• Leadership:||Leader & Cabinet|
|• MPs from 2005:||
Alan Johnson (Lab)|
Diana Johnson (Lab)
John Prescott (Lab)
|• Total||71.45 km2 (27.59 sq mi)|
(2005 est / Urban 2006)
|• Total||249,100 (Ranked 39th)|
|• Density||3,486/km2 (9,030/sq mi)|
Kingston upon Hull, often shortened to Hull, is a city and unitary authority in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is on both sides of the River Hull where it meets the Humber Estuary on the north bank estuary, near England's east coast, 25 miles (40 km) from the North Sea.
Hull has been a market town, military supply port, trading centre, fishing and whaling port, and industrial giant. Hull was also an early battleground in the English Civil Wars, and was the backdrop to events leading to the abolition of the slave trade in Britain. Hull was heavily damaged during the Second World War, and after a period of decline, when many factories closed; the city has started to regenerate. The Port of Hull is one of the UK's largest goods and passenger ports.
The king granted a royal charter, dated April 1, 1299, that renamed the settlement of Wyke to King's town upon Hull, or Kingston upon Hull. The charter remains preserved in the archives of the city's Guildhall.
In 1440, a new charter allowed the town to choose a mayor, a sheriff, and twelve aldermen to run its own affairs. The charter also said that the aldermen also be justices of the peace (that is, judges) for the town and its county.
In 1642 Hull decided to support for Parliament and refused to let Charles I enter the town. This meant the king could not have Hull's arsenal. Named a traitor, Hotham was eventually executed, in spite of a pardon issued by Parliament. Charles I besieged the town, that is he ordered his army to surround the town and force Hull to surrender. This siege helped start the fighting in the Civil War.
Hull became a city in 1897 This was then time when the city was the richest it had ever been. Catching whales and fishing were very important. Whaling is now banned, and fishing is limited by EU rules. But Hull is still a major port sending bulk goods and commercial road traffic by RORO ferry to and from the Dutch ports of Rotterdam and Zeebrugge and on to Europe. Hull is also an important centre of food-processing for the United Kingdom.
In the Second World War much of the city centre was completely destroyed. Hull was the most severely-bombed city or town apart from London during World War II, with 95% of houses being damaged or destroyed.
Hull was hit hard by the June 2007 floods. There was standing water over a wide area affecting 20% of the city's housing and damaging 90 out of its 105 schools. But the flooding was not as dramatic as the localised flooding in Sheffield and Doncaster. Newspapers and television reported about other areas, and Hull Council leader Carl Minns said Hull was the "forgotten city" of the floods. Damage to schools alone has been estimated at £100 million.
Much of Hull is on reclaimed land at or below sea level. The Hull Tidal Surge Barrier is where the River Hull joins the Humber Estuary and is lowered at times when unusually high tides are expected. It is used between 8 and 12 times per year and protects about 10,000 people from flooding. Due to its low level, Hull is expected to be at increasing levels of risk from flooding due to global warming.
Hull was a county borough in the East Riding of Yorkshire from 1889 to 1974. Then it became a non-metropolitan district of the new Humberside county. When that county was abolished in 1996 it was made a unitary authority. The governing body of the city is now Hull City Council, based in the Guildhall in the city centre. The council has adopted the "leader and cabinet" model. This means that most decision are made by the leader of the council and a Cabinet
Hull has the following twin towns:
- Sierra Leone Freetown
- Japan Niigata
- USA Raleigh, North Carolina
- Iceland Reykjavík
- Netherlands Rotterdam
- Poland Szczecin
Hull is the only city in the UK with its own independent telephone network company, now called Kingston Communications. On 24 May 2007, the council sold their remaining stake in the company for over £107 million.
People associated with Kingston upon Hull
People linked to the city include:
- John Alderton, actor, grew up in Hull and attended Kingston High School.
- Jon Culshaw, impressionist and comedian, also began his career as a DJ on Hull station Viking FM.
- John Godber, playwright, has been Artistic Director of the Hull Truck Theatre Company since 1984.
- Marion Hood, singer, grew up in Hull and performed in music hall there as a girl and young adult.
- JK and Joel, presenters on BBC Radio 1, began their partnership on local radio station Viking FM.
- Ted Lewis, author of Jack's Return Home, later filmed as Get Carter, attended Hull School of Art.
- Andrew Lincoln, actor, spent some time growing up in Hull.
- Clive Sullivan, rugby league player, played for both of Hull's rugby league teams. The main road into the city from the Humber Bridge is named after him (Clive Sullivan Way).
- "Kingston upon Hull". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9367522. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
- "Brief history of Hedon". Hedon Town Council: Working for You. Hedon Town Council. 2007. http://www.visionwebsites.co.uk/Contents/Text/Index.asp?SiteId=523&SiteExtra=17183398&TopNavId=530&NavSideId=5903. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "History of Hull". Hull City Council. Hull City Council. 2007. http://www.hullcc.gov.uk/portal/page?_pageid=221,148379&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Shop in Hull: History". Shop in Hull. Shop in Hull. 2007. http://www.shopinhull.co.uk/. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Slavery: unfinished business". Wilberforce 2007: Hull. Wilberforce 2007: Hull. 2007. http://www.wilberforce2007.com/index.php. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- Parkinson, Michael; Champion, Tony; Evans, Richard; Simmie, James; Turok, Ivan; Crookston, Martin; Katz, Bruce; Park, Alison; Berube, Alan; Coombes, Mike; Dorling, Danny; Glass, Norman; Hutchins, Mary; Kearns, Ade; Martin, Ron; Wood, Peter; (March 2006) (PDF). State of the English Cities: Volume 1. London: Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. p. p. 112. . http://www.communities.gov.uk/embedded_object.asp?id=1164004. Retrieved 2007-07-01.
- "City Centre". Hull Citybuild. Hull Citybuild. 2007. http://www.hullcitybuild.co.uk/p01_banner_rnav.asp?pageid=191. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- "Meaux". New Advent: Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2007. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/16062b.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Kingston upon Hull Tourist Information". AboutBritain.com. Excelsior Information Systems Limited. 1999-2007. http://www.aboutbritain.com/towns/kingston-upon-hull.asp. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Point 4: River Hull Walkway". BBC Humber. British Broadcasting Corporation. 2005-10-05. http://www.bbc.co.uk/humber/content/articles/2005/07/06/coast05walks_stage4.shtml. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- "Listed status for bombed cinema". BBC News. 2007-02-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/humber/6324301.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
- "Flood-hit Hull a 'forgotten city'". BBC News. 2007-07-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/humber/6270236.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Hull pleads for aid after floods leave one in five homes damaged". Guardian News and Media Limited. 2007-07-05. http://www.guardian.co.uk/weather/Story/0,,2118791,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "The Best and Worst Places - Hull". Channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/4homes/ontv/best&worst/best&worst_hull.html. Retrieved 2007-06-30. "Hull now sits at the end of a motorway, isolated from the rest of the country by the Humber estuary."
- "Hull Tidal Surge Barrier - Facts and Figures". Environment Agency website. http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/northeast/411697/411714/411761/?lang=_e. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
- "Yorkshire's grim future: Fires, floods and drought". Yorkshire Post Today. http://www.yorkshiretoday.co.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=55&ArticleID=128251. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
- "Hull Bed and Breakfast: Local Information". BedandBreakfasts.co.uk. 2007. http://www.bedandbreakfasts.co.uk/propertysearch.asp?townCity=Hull. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
- "Contact us". Hull City Council. Hull City Council. http://www.hullcc.gov.uk/portal/page?_pageid=221,75255&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
- "Decision-making structure". Hull City Council. Hull City Council. http://www.hullcc.gov.uk/portal/page?_pageid=221,98036&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL. Retrieved 2007-09-16.
- "Council is worst in the country". BBC News Online. 2004-12-16. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/humber/4099063.stm. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
- "Audit Commission Comprehensive Performance Assessment - Two stars for Hull". Hull City Council. Hull City Council. 2007-02-22. http://www.hullcc.gov.uk/portal/page?_pageid=221,93203&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&p_id=898&p_mode=result&p_theme=3&p_theme_name=Council%20government%20and%20democracy. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
- "Christmas around the world". Hull in print. Kingston upon Hull City Council. 2003. http://www.hullcc.gov.uk/hullinprint/archive/dec2006/christmas_around_the_world.php. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
- "Hull, Massachusetts". ePodunk. ePodunk Inc.. 2007. http://www.epodunk.com/cgi-bin/genInfo.php?locIndex=2990. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
- "Hull, Quebec". ePodunk Canada. ePodunk Inc.. 2007. http://ca.epodunk.com/profiles/quebec/hull/2004225.html. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
- "Council Completes KC Shares Sale". This is Hull & East Riding. http://www.thisishullandeastriding.co.uk/displayNode.jsp?nodeId=136730&command=displayContent&sourceNode=136541&contentPK=17403644&folderPk=79656&pNodeId=136251. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- Holy Trinity Church
- Hull City Council
- Hull City Council photo archive
- Hull Daily Mail
- Hull Philharmonic Youth Orchestra
- Hull York Medical School
- "The Humber Mouth" - Hull Literature Festival
- Photographs of modern and historic features in Kingston upon Hull
- Port of Kingston upon Hull
- Prince's Quay (shopping centre)
- Quay West Project
- Urban discussion forum dedicated to new development and regeneration]
- St Stephens Project
- The University of Hull
- Wikivoyage Guide