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Macedonian language

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Македонски јазик
Makedonski jazik
Pronunciation [maˈkɛdɔnski]
Native to Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Australia, Serbia, Albania, Germany, France, Italy, United States, Canada Turkey
Region The Balkans
Native speakers 1.6[1] - 3 million[2]  (date missing)
Language family
Writing system Cyrillic (Macedonian variant)
Official status
Official language in Flag of North Macedonia.svg Republic of Macedonia
recognised as minority language in parts of:
Regulated by Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Language codes
ISO 639-1 mk
ISO 639-2 mac (B)
mkd (T)
ISO 639-3 mkd
Countries with significant Macedonian-speaking populations

Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is an Indo-European language spoken mainly in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian is a part of the Balkan linguistic union, which also includes Greek, Bulgarian, Romanian, Albanian and Torlakian dialect of the Serbian language. Macedonian is similar to those languages.


Vowels of Macedonian[4]
Front Central Back
Close и /i/ у /u/
Mid е /ɛ/ о /ɔ/
Open а /a/
Consonants of Macedonian[4]
Bilabial Labio-
Dental Alveolar Post-
Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
Affricate ts dz
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x
Approximant j
Trill r
Lateral ɫ l


The Macedonian language uses a Cyrillic alphabet. The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Macedonian alphabet, along with the IPA value for each letter:

А а
Б б
В в
Г г
Д д
Ѓ ѓ
Е е
Ж ж
З з
Ѕ ѕ
И и
Ј ј
К к
Л л
Љ љ
М м
Н н
Њ њ
О о
П п
Р р
С с
Т т
Ќ ќ
У у
Ф ф
Х х
Ц ц
Ч ч
Џ џ
Ш ш


  1. Although the precise number of speakers is unknown, figures of between 1.6 million (from ethnologue) and 2-2.5 million have been cited, see Topolinjska (1998) and Friedman (1985). The general academic consensus is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration" Friedman (1985:?).
  2. [1]
  3. Hill (1999:?)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lunt (1952:1)

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