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Muammar al-Gaddafi

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Muammar Gaddafi
مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي
Muammar al-Gaddafi at the AU summit.jpg
Muammar al-Gaddafi at an African Union Summit in 2009
Leader and Guide of the Revolution
In office
1 September 1969 – 23 August 2011
Prime Minister
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Secretary General of the General People's Congress of Libya
In office
2 March 1977 – 2 March 1979
Prime MinisterAbdul Ati al-Obeidi
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byAbdul Ati al-Obeidi
Prime Minister of Libya
In office
16 January 1970 – 16 July 1972
Preceded byMahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi
Succeeded byAbdessalam Jalloud
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council of Libya
In office
1 September 1969 – 2 March 1977
Prime MinisterMahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi
Abdessalam Jalloud
Abdul Ati al-Obeidi
Preceded byIdris*
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Chairperson of the African Union
In office
2 February 2009 – 31 January 2010
Preceded byJakaya Kikwete
Succeeded byBingu wa Mutharika
Personal details
Bornc. 1940-43
Qasr Abu Hadi, Italian Libya
DiedOctober 20, 2011 (aged c. 69)
Sirt, Libya
Spouse(s)Fatiha al-Nuri (divorced)
Safia Farkash
(m. 1970–2011, his death)
Military service
AllegianceLibya Kingdom of Libya (1961–69)
Libya Libyan Arab Republic (1969–77)
Libya Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–2011)
Branch/serviceLibyan Army
Years of service1961–2011
CommandsCommander-in-chief, Libyan Armed Forces
Battles/warsLibyan–Egyptian War
Chadian–Libyan conflict
Uganda–Tanzania War
2011 Libyan civil war

Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi[4](Arabic: مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي Muʿammar al-Qaḏḏāfī Loudspeaker.png audio (info • help))[variations] (c. 1942 - 20 October 2011) was a Libyan politician. He was the ruler of Libya from 1969 to 2011.[5]

Early life

Muammar al-Gaddafi was born in a tent near Qasr Abu Hadi. His family came from a small tribal group called Qadhadhfa. His family were Arabized Berber in heritage. He was a member of the army. al-Gaddafi was a colonel.

Ruler of Libya

He had ruled Libya from September 1, 1969 to August 23, 2011. Gaddafi became head of state after removing King Idris from power in a 1969 bloodless coup. After the coup, Gaddafi started the Libyan Arab Republic.[6] He was one of the longest-serving rulers in history who was not a king or a queen, because he had ruled for more than 41 years.[7] Gaddafi used Arab socialist and Arab nationalist ideas. He published a book about his philosophical views in 1975. This book is commonly known as The Green Book. In 1977, he left the power of Libya, and continued playing role of revolutionary, people called him the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution".[8][9]In the 1980s, he developed chemical weapons, because of it critics called Libya a pariah state.[10][11] A Dutch investigation found that Gaddafi had built up a "billion-dollar empire", from assets in an international company in the oil industry. It also claims that his assets are scattered throughout much of Europe,[12] Despite no trace or proof for even 1 billion have been found.[13] Gaddafi had a strong interest in geo-political control, was a firm supporter of OAPEC and led a Pan-African campaign for a United States of Africa.[14] In 1986 Libya was bombed by US, home of gaddafi was targeted but he survived, Bombing was condemned by many nations and also by UN.[15] In 1992, sanctions were imposed on Libya by a few western countries. After these events, Gaddafi started to have closer economic and security relations with the West. He cooperated with investigations into alleged Libyan anti-western acts, by 1999 he offered to dismantle Weapon of Mass Destruction of Libya, which would be inspected in 2003. As a result, the UN sanctions were lifted in the same year.

2011 Libyan protests

In February 2011 there were major violent protests against Libyan government. These came alongside other demonstrations in Tunisia, Egypt, and other parts of the Arab world. The protests quickly turned into a civil war. Gaddafi vowed to "die a martyr" if necessary in his fight against rebels and external forces; he also said that "peaceful protest is one thing but armed rebellion is another."[16][17][18][19]

Accusal of Crimes

On 17 May 2011 the International Criminal Court issued a request for an arrest warrant against Gaddafi for alleged crimes against humanity,[20] which was approved on 27 June and a warrant was issued by the court.[21]On June 2011, according to investigation made by Amnesty International, it was found that there was no evidence for many of the alleged crimes, and that the rebels had falsely blamed Gaddafi as well as the government.[22]


Gaddafi was captured alive and killed in Sirte, Libya, on 20 October 2011.[23]


  1. "Nato strike 'kills Saif al-Arab Gaddafi', Libya says". BBC News. 1 May 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son' – Africa – Al Jazeera English
  3. NBC’s Mitchell Regurgitates Gaddafi Lies
  4. "Al-Qadhafi, Muammar Muhammad". Oxford Dictionary of Political Biography
  5. Barker, Anne (2011). "Gaddafi captured, killed in Sirte - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  6. Salak, Kira. "National Geographic article about Libya". National Geographic Adventure.
  7. Charles Féraud, "Annales Tripolitaines", the Arabic version named "Al Hawliyat Al Libiya", translated to Arabic by Mohammed Abdel Karim El Wafi, Dar el Ferjani, Tripoli, Libya, vol. 3, p.797.
  8. Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2010, p. 279 n. 2
  9. Background Notes, (November 2005) "Libya – History", United States Department of State. Retrieved on 14 July 2006.
  10. Qaddafi and the Libyan Revolution; The Making of a Pariah State: The Adventurist Policies of Muammar Qaddafi | Foreign Affairs
  11. Keller, Paul (6 January 2004). "Libya's two decades as pariah state". BBC News.
  12. "Gaddafi's Dutch millions, Radio Netherlands Worldwide". 24 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  14. "Gaddafi: Africa's 'king of kings'". BBC News. 29 August 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  18. "Gaddafi defiant as state teeters – Africa". Al Jazeera English. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  19. "Middle East and North Africa unrest". BBC News. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  20. ICC requests Gaddafi arrest warrant
  21. "Libya: ICC issues arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi".
  23. "Muammar Gaddafi killed in Sirte". Al Jazeera English. 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-10-20.