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Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity are crimes that are committed against a large group of people who have not done anything wrong. Groups who commit crimes against humanity do not hurt just one person, or just a few people. They want to hurt an entire group of people that they do not like. For example, in Nazi Germany during The Holocaust, the Nazis tried to kill all of the Jewish people in Europe. This is an example of a crime against humanity.
Not every crime committed against a big group is a crime against humanity. To be crimes against humanity, crimes must be:
- Planned by a government, or
- Accepted by the government. Even though the crimes are very common, the government does not do anything to try to stop them. In this way, the government is giving its approval for the crimes, without actually telling people to do them.
- Murder and mass murder
- Punishing people without a trial
- Making children be soldiers
- Putting innocent people in prison
- Taking hostages
- Forcing a certain group to leave their homes (this is also called "ethnic cleansing")
- Persecuting a group because of their religion, race, ethnic group, home country, culture, political beliefs, or gender
However, in the past, not all of these things were thought of as crimes against humanity. For example, crimes against humanity were first listed in 1945. However, it was not until 2002 that many forms of sexual abuse (like sexual slavery) were included as crimes against humanity.pp. 8–10
The Armenian Genocide
The words "crime against humanity" were first used after the Armenian Genocide. In 1915, the government of the Ottoman Empire killed up to 1.5 million Armenian people. The government killed men or made them do forced labor. They also forced Armenian women and children to leave their homes. On the way, the Ottoman military raped, robbed, and killed civilians.
The Nuremberg Trials
After World War II ended, many people who participated in The Holocaust were captured and put on trial at the Nuremberg Trials. However, the people running the Trials had to figure out how to deal with the crimes these people had committed during the Holocaust. At that time, courts could try people for war crimes. But the courts had never seen a case where a government committed such awful crimes against its own citizens.
To allow the court to charge the Nazis for these crimes, the court passed a law. This law said that the court could put people on trial for crimes against humanity as well as war crimes. It defined "crimes against humanity" as:
Murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhumane acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war, or persecutions [because of] political, racial or religious [reasons.] 
South Africa practiced apartheid for decades. The government passed laws saying that different races could not live in the same areas, have sex, get married, go to school together, go to the same beaches, or even go to the same hospitals. The schools, hospitals, and other places where non-white people were allowed to go were much worse than the places for white people.
Considering ... that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and that everyone is entitled to all ... rights and freedoms ... [we] declare that apartheid is a crime against humanity. 
No one has ever been tried for apartheid-related crimes against humanity.
Rape and sexual violence
The International Criminal Court (ICC) opened in 2002. Its job is to look into war crimes and crimes against humanity. If possible, it tries and punishes people for these crimes. When the ICC was formed, it created a new list of crimes against humanity. This was the first time that any type of sexual abuse, other than rape, was included as a crime against humanity. The ICC includes all of these as crimes against humanity:pp. 8–10
- Sexual slavery
- Making women work as prostitutes
- Forcing women to get pregnant
- Forcing women to get sterilized
- Sexual violence (other types of sexual abuse and sexual assault)
The ICC also includes all of these crimes as war crimes, if they happen as part of a war.pp. 8–10
- DeGuzman, Margaret M. (2012). "Crimes Against Humanity". In Bartram S. Brown (ed.). Research Handbook on International Law. Edward Elgar Publishers. .
- "What are crimes against humanity?". https://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/about%20the%20court/frequently%20asked%20questions/Pages/12.aspx. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Elements of Crimes. The Hague, Netherlands: PrintPartners Ipskamp. 2011. . https://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/336923d8-a6ad-40ec-ad7b-45bf9de73d56/0/elementsofcrimeseng.pdf.
- Werth, Nicholas; Bartošek, Karel; Panné, Jean-Louis; Margolin, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Courtois, Stéphane. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 6. .
- "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1 Charter of the International Military Tribunal". http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/imtconst.asp. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- "Tsitsernakaberd Memorial Complex". National Academy of Sciences in the Republic of Armenia. 2014. http://www.genocide-museum.am/eng/Description_and_history.php. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Kifner, John (December 7, 2007). "Armenian Genocide of 1915: An Overview". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/ref/timestopics/topics_armeniangenocide.html. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J. (2002) (in German), Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah, Chronos, p. 114,
- Walker, Christopher J. (1980), Armenia: The Survival of A Nation, London: Croom Helm, pp. 200–3
- Bryce, Viscount James; Toynbee, Arnold (2000), Sarafian, Ara, ed., The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden (uncensored ed.), Princeton, NJ: Gomidas, pp. 635–49,
- "106th Congress Report: House of Representatives, 2d Session, 106-933: Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution". 106th Congress of the United States. October 4, 2000. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/cpquery/T?&report=hr933&dbname=106&. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- "Apartheid: Social Policy". Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.. June 3, 2015. http://www.britannica.com/topic/apartheid. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
- Beck, Roger B. (2000). The History of South Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-313-30730-0.
- International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid adopted and opened for signature, ratification by General Assembly resolution 3068 (XXVIII) of 30 November 1973. Entry into force 18 July 1976, in accordance with article X (10) Archive copy at the Internet Archive
- "Security Council Demands Immediate and Complete Halt to Acts of Sexual Violence Against Civilians in Conflict Zones, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1820 (2008)". United Nations. June 19, 2008. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2008/sc9364.doc.htm. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Elements of Crimes by the International Criminal Court (a list and explanation of every crime the ICC considers a crime against humanity or a war crime)