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New Jersey

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State of New Jersey
Flag of New JerseyOfficial seal of New Jersey
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
Map of the United States with New Jersey highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of New Jersey
Admitted to the UnionDecember 18, 1787 (3rd)
Largest cityNewark
Largest metroGreater New York
 • GovernorPhil Murphy (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorSheila Oliver (D)
LegislatureNew Jersey Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseGeneral Assembly
U.S. senatorsBob Menendez (D)
Cory Booker (D)
U.S. House delegation10 Democrats
2 Republicans (list)
 • Total8,722.58 sq mi (22,591.38 km2)
 • Land7,354.22 sq mi (19,047.34 km2)
 • Water1,368.36 sq mi (3,544.04 km2)  15.7%
Area rank47th
250 ft (80 m)
Highest elevation1,803 ft (549.6 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean[2])
0 ft (0 m)
 • Total8,882,190
 • Rank11th
 • Density1,210.10/sq mi (467/km2)
 • Density rank1st
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
 • Official languageNone
 • Spoken language
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NJ
Trad. abbreviationN.J.
Latitude38°56′ N to 41°21′ N
Longitude73°54′ W to 75°34′ W
New Jersey State symbols
Flag of New Jersey.svg
The Flag of New Jersey.

Seal of New Jersey.svg
The Seal of New Jersey.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) Eastern goldfinch[8]
Fish Brook trout[9]
Flower(s) Viola sororia
Insect Western honey bee>
Mammal(s) Horse
Tree Quercus rubra (northern red oak),[10] dogwood (memorial tree)

Inanimate insignia
Colors Buff and blue
Food Northern highbush blueberry (state fruit)
Fossil Hadrosaurus foulkii
Soil Downer[11]

Route marker(s)
New Jersey Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of New Jersey
Released in 1999

Lists of United States state insignia

New Jersey is one of the 50 states of the United States of America. It is in the northeastern section of the country along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is a geographically small state, shaped like a letter [S], and bordered on the west by Pennsylvania and Delaware across the Delaware River, on the north by New York, on the northeast by the Hudson River and New York City, on the east and southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the southwest by Delaware Bay.

The capital of New Jersey is Trenton and the largest city is Newark, though New Jersey is better known for bordering the large cities of New York City and Philadelphia. The state nickname is "The Garden State". The current governor is Phil Murphy.[12]

New Jersey is the fourth smallest state, but has the eleventh highest number of people. It therefore has the highest population density (number of people for the amount of land) in the United States. New Jersey is also well known for its beaches, industries, swamps, and pine forests.

The climate is hot and humid summers and cold winters, with about 1200 mm of precipitation every year. The average temperature in July is 25-30 degrees Celsius and in January around freezing point.


Before Europeans came, the land that is now New Jersey was inhabited by the Lenape (also known as Delaware Indians by the English), who were nomads, hunters, and farmers. The Dutch came to the northern area of the state in the 1630s, after Henry Hudson explored the area, thought it was a nice place, and claimed it for the Dutch. Towns quickly sprang up, occupied by the Dutch, Swedes, and Finns. People rushed in. The first towns, such as Bergen (now Jersey City), Trenton (the capitol), and Burlington developed. Many others started themselves upon the west bank of the Hudson. New Jersey was part of the area known at this time as New Netherland.

In 1664, the English took New Netherland from the Dutch and added it to their colonies. This part was renamed New Jersey after an island in the English Channel known as Jersey.

New Jersey took part in the American Revolutionary War, and was a scene of battles. On Christmas in 1776, George Washington's army entered New Jersey to attack British soldiers at Trenton and Princeton. The American army won, in two small but famous battles that were important in boosting American morale.

Later, the rebels drove the British residents out of Princeton and for a time established a national capital there. New Jersey would be the third state to join the United States of America and the first to approve the Bill of Rights.


New Jersey has 21 counties:

FIPS Code County Seat [13] Created [13] Formed from [14] Named for [15] Population (2005) [13] Area [13] Map
Atlantic County 001 Mays Landing 1837 Gloucester County The Atlantic Ocean, which forms the county's eastern border &&&&&&&&&0271015.&&&&&0271,015 &&&&&&&&&&&&0671.&&&&&0671 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01738.&&&&&01,738 km²)
State map highlighting Atlantic County
Bergen County 003 Hackensack 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The town of Bergen op Zoom, Holland or Bergen, Norway &&&&&&&&&0904037.&&&&&0904,037 &&&&&&&&&&&&0247.&&&&&0247 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0640.&&&&&0640 km²)
State map highlighting Bergen County
Burlington County 005 Mount Holly Township 1681 One of two original counties created in West Jersey The old name for the ancient market town a mile from shore in Bridlington, England &&&&&&&&&0450743.&&&&&0450,743 &&&&&&&&&&&&0819.&&&&&0819 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&02121.&&&&&02,121 km²)
State map highlighting Burlington County
Camden County 007 Camden 1844 Gloucester County Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden (1714–1794), an English supporter of the colonial cause during the American Revolution[16] &&&&&&&&&0517001.&&&&&0517,001 &&&&&&&&&&&&0228.&&&&&0228 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0591.&&&&&0591 km²)
State map highlighting Camden County
Cape May County 009 Cape May Court House 1685 Burlington County The 17th-century Dutch explorer Cornelius Jacobsen Mey (?–16??), who explored and surveyed the Delaware Bay to the south of the county &&&&&&&&&&099286.&&&&&099,286 &&&&&&&&&&&&0365.&&&&&0365 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0945.&&&&&0945 km²)
State map highlighting Cape May County
Cumberland County 011 Bridgeton 1748 Salem County Prince William, Duke of Cumberland (1721–1765), second son of George II of England and military victor at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 &&&&&&&&&0154823.&&&&&0154,823 &&&&&&&&&&&&0677.&&&&&0677 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01753.&&&&&01,753 km²)
State map highlighting Cumberland County
Essex County 013 Newark 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The county of Essex in England &&&&&&&&&0786147.&&&&&0786,147 &&&&&&&&&&&&0130.&&&&&0130 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0337.&&&&&0337 km²)
State map highlighting Essex County
Gloucester County 015 Woodbury 1686 Burlington County The city of Gloucester, England &&&&&&&&&0276910.&&&&&0276,910 &&&&&&&&&&&&0337.&&&&&0337 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0873.&&&&&0873 km²)
State map highlighting Gloucester County
Hudson County 017 Jersey City 1840 Bergen County The English explorer Henry Hudson (1570–1611), who explored portions of New Jersey's coastline &&&&&&&&&0601146.&&&&&0601,146 &&&&&&&&&&&&&062.&&&&&062 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0161.&&&&&0161 km²)
State map highlighting Hudson County
Hunterdon County 019 Flemington 1714 Burlington County Robert Hunter (1664–1734), the Colonial Governor of New Jersey from 1710 to 1720 &&&&&&&&&0130404.&&&&&0130,404 &&&&&&&&&&&&0438.&&&&&0438 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01134.&&&&&01,134 km²)
State map highlighting Hunterdon County
Mercer County 021 Trenton 1838 Burlington County, Hunterdon County, Middlesex County, and Somerset County The Continental Army General Hugh Mercer (1726–1777), who died at the Battle of Princeton[17] &&&&&&&&&0367605.&&&&&0367,605 &&&&&&&&&&&&0229.&&&&&0229 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0593.&&&&&0593 km²)
State map highlighting Mercer County
Middlesex County 023 New Brunswick 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The former county of Middlesex in England &&&&&&&&&0789516.&&&&&0789,516 &&&&&&&&&&&&0323.&&&&&0323 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0837.&&&&&0837 km²)
State map highlighting Middlesex County
Monmouth County 025 Freehold Borough 1675 One of four original counties created in East Jersey The Rhode Island Monmouth Society or the historic county of Monmouthshire in Wales. &&&&&&&&&0635285.&&&&&0635,285 &&&&&&&&&&&&0665.&&&&&0665 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01722.&&&&&01,722 km²)
State map highlighting Monmouth County
Morris County 027 Morristown 1739 Hunterdon County Colonel Lewis Morris (1671–1746), colonial governor of New Jersey at the time of the county's formation.[18][19] &&&&&&&&&0493160.&&&&&0493,160 &&&&&&&&&&&&0481.&&&&&0481 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01246.&&&&&01,246 km²)
State map highlighting Morris County
Ocean County 029 Toms River 1850 Monmouth County The Atlantic Ocean, which forms the eastern border of New Jersey &&&&&&&&&0562335.&&&&&0562,335 &&&&&&&&&&&&0916.&&&&&0916 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&02372.&&&&&02,372 km²)
State map highlighting Ocean County
Passaic County 031 Paterson 1837 Bergen County and Essex County "Pasaeck", a Lenape word meaning "valley" &&&&&&&&&0499060.&&&&&0499,060 &&&&&&&&&&&&0197.&&&&&0197 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0510.&&&&&0510 km²)
State map highlighting Passaic County
Salem County 033 Salem 1681 One of two original counties created in West Jersey A Hebrew word meaning "peace" &&&&&&&&&&066595.&&&&&066,595 &&&&&&&&&&&&0373.&&&&&0373 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0966.&&&&&0966 km²)
State map highlighting Salem County
Somerset County 035 Somerville 1688 Middlesex County The county of Somerset in England &&&&&&&&&0319900.&&&&&0319,900 &&&&&&&&&&&&0305.&&&&&0305 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0790.&&&&&0790 km²)
State map highlighting Somerset County
Sussex County 037 Newton 1753 Morris County The county of Sussex in England &&&&&&&&&0153384.&&&&&0153,384 &&&&&&&&&&&&0536.&&&&&0536 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&01388.&&&&&01,388 km²)
State map highlighting Sussex County
Union County 039 Elizabeth 1857 Essex County The union of the United States threatened by dispute between North and South over slavery &&&&&&&&&0531088.&&&&&0531,088 &&&&&&&&&&&&0105.&&&&&0105 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0272.&&&&&0272 km²)
State map highlighting Union County
Warren County 041 Belvidere 1824 Sussex County The American Revolutionary War General Joseph Warren (1741–1775), killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill &&&&&&&&&0110376.&&&&&0110,376 &&&&&&&&&&&&0363.&&&&&0363 sq mi
(&&&&&&&&&&&&0940.&&&&&0940 km²)
State map highlighting Warren County


  1. The Garden State and Other New Jersey State Nicknames Archived September 2, 2019, at the Wayback Machine, Robert Lupp, New Jersey Reference Services, New Jersey State Library, October 12, 1994.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. 
  3. Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
  4. "Language spoken at home by ability to speak English for the population 5 years and over—2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". 
  5. "GPO Style Manual 2008". 
  6. "New Jersey—Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary".. 
  7. "Definition of New Jerseyite". 
  8. "New Jersey State Bird". The State of New Jersey. 
  9. "The New Jersey State Fish". The State of New Jersey. 
  10. "The New Jersey State Trees". The State of New Jersey. 
  11. "New Jersey State Soil—Downer". United States Department of Agriculture. 
  12. DeFalco, Beth. "NJ gov off to a strong start; some say too strong".;_ylt=Aj.ByJA.EilP3Wnbm2f.dysEtbAF;_ylu=X3oDMTJzbGI3NTJwBGFzc2V0A2FwLzIwMTAwMzI0L3VzX3RvdWdoX2d1eV9nb3Zlcm5vcgRwb3MDMjEEc2VjA3luX3BhZ2luYXRlX3N1bW1hcnlfbGlzdARzbGsDbmpnb3ZvZmZ0b2Fz. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 "NACo - Find a county". National Association of Counties. 
  14. "New Jersey Formation Maps". Genealogy, Inc.. 
  15. "The Origin of New Jersey Place Names" (PDF). New Jersey State Library Commission. Federal Writers' Program. 1938. 
  16. Greenberg, Gail. A Brief History of Camden County, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed June 26, 2007.
  17. Mercer County History, State of New Jersey. Accessed June 26, 2007.
  18. The Land Past and Present, Retrieved on March 22, 2007.
  19. How did our county get its name?, Morris County Library website (accessed February 13, 2008)