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Panjnad River




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Panjnad River (Urdu: پنجند, Sanskrit: panj = five, nadi = river) is a river in Punjab, Pakistan. Panjnad River is formed by successive confluence of the five rivers of Punjab, namely Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab, Beas joins Sutlej, and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad near Uch Sharif. The combined stream runs southwest for approximately 45 miles and joins Indus River at Mithankot. The Indus continues into the Arabian Sea. A dam on Panjnad has been erected; it provides irrigation channels for Punjab and Sind provinces south of the Sutlej and east of the Indus rivers.

Beyond the meeting of Indus and Panjnad rivers, the Indus river was known as Satnad (Sat = seven) carrying the waters of seven rivers including Indus river, which is believed to be in ealrlier times the Saraswati River/Ghaggar-Hakra River river which eventually dried and became a seasonal river due to seismic shifts in the glacial region of Himachal Pradesh where it originated and later on Kabul river and the five rivers of Punjab.

Tributaries

  • Chenab River - The Chenab River (Punjabi: ਚਨਾਬ, Sanskrit: Canāb, Urdu: چناب, literally: 'Moon(Chan) چن River(aab)') آب is formed by the confluence of the Chandra and Bhaga rivers at Tandi in the upper Himalayas in the Lahul and Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh, Republic of India. In its upper reaches it is also known as the Chandrabhaga. It flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir into the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and Jech interfluves (Doabs in Persian). It is joined by the Jhelum River at Trimmu تریمو and then by the Ravi River Ahmadpur Siyaal احمدپورسیال. It then merges with the Sutlej River near Uch Sharif to form the Panjnad or the 'Five Rivers', the fifth being the Beas River which joins the Satluj near Ferozepur, India. The Chenab then joins the Indus at Mithankot. The total length of the Chenab is approximately 960 kilometres. The waters of the Chenab are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty.
    • The Jehlum River or Jhelum River (Punjabi: ਜੇਹਲਮ, Punjabi: دریاۓ جہلم) is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about 480 miles (774 kilometers). The river Jhelum rises from a spring at Verinag situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir. It flows through Srinagar and the Wular Lake before entering Pakistan from India-controlled Kashmir through a deep narrow gorge. The Kishenganga Neelum River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it near Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley. It also connects with Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is then joined by the Poonch river, and flows into the Mangla reservoir in the Mirpur District. The Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs. It ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlej to form the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.
      • The Kunhar River (Urdu: دریائے کنہار) is in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A main source of the river is Lulusar lake, nearly 48 km from Naran Valley. Glaciers of Malka Parbat and Makra Peak and the waters of Saiful Muluk lake feed the river. The Kunhar flows through the entire Kaghan Valley through Jalkhand, Naran, Kaghan, Jared, Paras and Balakot, and joins the Jhelum River. The Kunhar river trout is considered to be the best throughout the Indian subcontinent.
      • The Liddar River in the neighbourhood of Pahalagam, a stream originates from the waters of Panjtarni. Another stream is born from the slopes of Kolahai Glacier and the third one is produced by Shishnag spring. The river is named Liddar and flowing to south west it empties itself into Jhelum River a few miles north of Islamabad Town.
      • The Neelum River (Urdu: دریائے نیلم) is a river in Kashmir.
        • The Poonch River originates in the western foothills of Pir Panjal range, in the areas of Neel-Kanth Gali and Jamian Gali. It is called Siran in this area. It flows to the north west. A stream flowing from Mandi joins it and then in the west of Poonch city another stream called Betaar flows into it. It turns to the south and while leaving Poonch valley another stream called Suwan joins it. At first flowing southwards it enters Mangla Lake near Chomukh. The towns of Poonch, Sehra, Tata Pani and Kotli are situated on the banks of this river.
      • The Pohru River is formed by the conglomeration of many smaller streams which takes birth in the mountainous slopes of northern boundary of Kashmir Valley. At Mughalpura Pohru is joined by another stream called Lolab. Turning south from this point, it enters Jhelum River at Dob-Gao, 3 miles from Sopore.
      • The Sind Stream originates from the slopes of Zojila Pass and flowing to south west is joined by another stream coming from Dachhen-Para. Flowing southward and crossing Sind Valley, it empties into Jhelum River near Shadipura.
      • The Sandran River takes birth near Nandmarg pass in the south eastern border areas of Kashmir Valley and flowing to the north west empties into Jhelum River along with Arapath River and Brengi River near Islamabad Town. From this point downstream Jhelum River turns into a full fledged river.
      • The Sang-e-Sufaid Kol Stream - Doodh Ganga Stream takes birth in the right slopes of Pir Panjal range. In these areas is called Sang-e-Sufaid Kol by the Kashmiri Muslims. Flowing in the direction of north east, it enters the plains Punjab (Pakistan) at a distance of few miles from Cherar Sherif and then turns to the north. Flowing near Batmalu and Chhatabal, it drains into Jhelum River near Safakadal.
      • The Vishau River originates in the Kosarnag spring gives birth to a stream in the vicinity of Pir Panjal in south western part of the Valley of Kashmir. It flows to the north and another stream called Chitti Nadi joins it from the right bank. The famous waterfall of Ahrabal is formed at this place. After entering the plains and joined by another stream Rambi-Aar, it joins Jhelum River in the north of Bijbihara. Rambi-Aar is comprised of the water of two lakes Nandan Sar and Bhagsar.
    • Manawar Tavi River - This rivulet originates in Thana-Mandi area in the north of Rajouri. Flowing to south through Rajouri, Chingus and Naushera, it enters Punjab (Pakistan) at Manawar and near Marala it joins the Chenab River.
    • The Ravi River (Sanskrit: रवि, Punjabi: ਰਾਵੀ, Urdu: راوی) is a river in Indian Kashmir and Pakistan. It is one of the five rivers which give Punjab its name. The Ravi was known as Parushani or Iravati to Indians in Vedic times and Hydraotes to the Ancient Greeks. It originates in the Himalayas in the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh following a north-westerly course. It turns to the south-west, near Dalhousie, and then cuts a gorge in the Dhaola Dhar range entering the Punjab plain near Madhopur. It then flows along the Indo-Pak border for some distance before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab River. The total length of the river is about 720 km. The waters of the Ravi river are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan and the resulting Indus Basin Project. It is also called 'The river of Lahore' since that great city is located on its eastern bank. On its western bank is located the famous town of Shahdara with the tomb of Jahangir and the Tomb of Noor Jahan.
      • The Ojh Nadi River - The origin of Ojh stream is Bass-Kund Lake at a height of 13,000 feet above sea-level, 80 miles to the north east of Jammu. Flowing to the south it falls into Ravi River after entering Punjab (Pakistan) Plains of Pakistan. The total number of rivers and their tributaries in Jammu and Kashmir is 45.
    • The Tawi River flows through the city of Jammu, Kashmir and is a major left bank tributary of the Chenab River. The river originates from the lapse of Kali Kundi glacier and adjoining area south-west of Bhadarwah in Doda District. Tawi river catchment is delinated by latitude 320 35' -330 5' N and longitude 740 35' - 750 45' E. The catchment area of the river up to Indo-Pak cease-fire border (Jammu) is 2168 km², and falls within the districts of Jammu, Udhampur and a small part of Doda. Elevation in the catchment varies between 400–4000 m and total length of the river is about 141 km. The river in general flows through steep hills on either side excepting the lower reach for about 35 km. width of the river at Jammu is about 300 m at the bridge site.
    • The Wardwan River - A small and beautiful valley named Marew-Wardwan is in the southeast of Kashmir Valley. It is 40 miles in length and its width is 1/2 miles. A rivulet of the same name (Wardwan) takes birth in the northern part of the valley and flowing to south through the valley, reaches Kishtwar where it drains into Chenab River.
  • The Sutlej River (sometimes spelled as Satluj River) (Punjabi: ਸਤਲੁਜ, Sanskrit: शतद्रु or सुतुद्रीSuṭudri, Urdu: ستلج, and Hindi: सतलुज) is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroad region of Punjab in northern Republic of India and Pakistan.
    Sutlej Valley from Rampur ca. 1857
    It is located north of the Vindhya Range, south of the Hindu Kush segment of the Himalayas, and east of the Central Makran range in Pakistan. Sutlej is sometimes known as the Red River. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. Its source is at Lake Rakshastal in Tibet near Mount Kailas, and it flows generally west and southwest. It waters the ancient and historically important region of Greater Punjab. The region to its south and east is arid, and is known as the Great Indian Desert or Thar Desert.

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