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Republic of South Sudan
and largest city
|Government||Federal presidential democratic republic|
|Salva Kiir Mayardit|
|James Wani Igga|
|Council of States|
|National Legislative Assembly|
|Independence from Sudan|
|31 December 1955|
|6 January 2005|
|9 July 2005|
|9 July 2011|
|619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (42nd)|
• 2008 census
|8,260,490 (disputed) (94th)|
|13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)|
The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.
What is now South Sudan was once part of the British Empire. It became part of the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time, after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.
The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state. South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations, the East African Community, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.
Much of South Sudan's economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.
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- Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
- Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
- Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). "Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/topstories/2011-01-30-2052877353_x.htm. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
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- "South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies". Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011. http://www.sudantribune.com/South-Sudan-avails-new-foreign,39637. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country". International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2011/pr11145.htm. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- "World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence". The Financial. 9 July 2011. http://finchannel.com/news_flash/World/90526_World_Bank_Group_Congratulates_People_of_South_Sudan_on_Independence/. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
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- "London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch," NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.