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South Sudan

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Republic of South Sudan

Flag of South Sudan
Location of South Sudan
and largest city
Official languages English[1][2]
Demonym(s) South Sudanese
Government Federal presidential democratic republic
• President
Salva Kiir Mayardit
James Wani Igga
Legislature National Legislature
Council of States
National Legislative Assembly
Independence from Sudan
• End of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
31 December 1955
6 January 2005
• Autonomy
9 July 2005
9 July 2011
• Total
619,745 km2 (239,285 sq mi) (42nd)
• 2008 census
8,260,490 (disputed)[3] (94th)
• Density
13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
The ten states of South Sudan grouped in the three historical provinces of the Sudan.
     Bahr el Ghazal      Equatoria      Greater Upper Nile

South Sudan is a country in Africa. Its official name is the Republic of South Sudan.[8] It used to be a part of Sudan.


The landlocked country is bordered by Ethiopia to the east; Kenya to the southeast; Uganda to the south; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest; the Central African Republic to the west; and the Republic of Sudan to the north. South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd formed by the White Nile, locally called the Bahr al Jabal.


What is now South Sudan was once part of the British Empire. It became part of the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956. After the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005. Later that year, the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011 at midnight local time,[9][10] after a referendum held in January 2011. In the referendum, nearly 99% of voters wanted to separate from the rest of Sudan.[11]

The United Nations Security Council met on 13 July 2011 to formally discuss membership for the Republic of South Sudan. The next day, 14 July 2011, South Sudan became a United Nations member state.[12][13] South Sudan has also applied to join the Commonwealth of Nations,[14] the East African Community,[15][16] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[17] the International Monetary Fund,[18] and the World Bank.[19] The country was declared eligible to apply for membership in the Arab League as well.[20]

At the 2012 Summer Olympics, one athlete from South Sudan competed under the flag of the IOC.[21]


Its capital is Juba. Between eight and twelve million people live there. Over 200 languages are spoken, but the official language is English. Arabic is spoken by many people.

The main religion is Christianity, practised by nearly 78% of the population. Another 20% practise local animist religion, and just 3% is Muslim.

Much of South Sudan's economy is based on oil, but they also have a large lumber industry mainly consisting of teak. It is a very poor and under-developed country. There is very little infrastructure, and the civil wars have caused a lot of damage.


  1. "The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011". Government of South Sudan. Retrieved 12 July 2011. Part One, 6(2). "English shall be the official working language in the Republic of South Sudan".
  2. "At a Glance". Official portal. Government of Southern Sudan. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  3. "Discontent over Sudan census". AFP. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  4. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2013. International Monetary Fund. April 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
  6. International Telecommunication Union (14 July 2011). "New country, new number: Country code 211 officially assigned to South Sudan". Press release. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  7. ".ss Domain Delegation Data". Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. ICANN. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  8. "South Sudan". The World Factbook. CIA. 11 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-14.
  9. Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 1)
  10. Broadcast of Declaration of Independence (part 2)
  11. Fick, Maggie (30 January 2011). "Over 99 pct in Southern Sudan vote for secession". USA Today. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
  12. Worsnip, Patrick (14 July 2011). "South Sudan admitted to U.N. as 193rd member". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
  13. "UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State". United Nations News Service. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
  14. "South Sudan launches bid to join Commonwealth". Talk of Sudan. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  15. "South Sudan: Big trading potential for EAC". IGIHE. 8 July 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  16. "Welcome South Sudan to EAC!". East African Business Week. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  17. "South Sudan avails new foreign policy, to open 54 embassies". Sudan Tribune. 25 July 2011.,39637. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
  18. "IMF receives membership application from South Sudan, seeks contributions to Technical Assistance Trust Fund to help new country". International Monetary Fund. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  19. "World Bank group congratulates people of South Sudan on independence". The Financial. 9 July 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
  20. "South Sudan "entitled to join Arab League"". Sudan Tribune. 12 June 2011.,39193. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  21. "London 2012: Refugee runs for world, family walk 50km to watch," NDTV (New Delhi Television), 11 August 2012; retrieved 2012-8-16.