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# Empire State Building

Empire State Building
General information
LocationNew York City
CountryUnited States
Construction started1930
Completed1931
Height
Antenna spire1,454 feet (443 m)
Technical details
Floor count102
Elevators73

The Empire State Building is a skyscraper in Manhattan, New York City, United States. It is 1,454 feet (443 m) tall and has 102 floors.[1][2] Named after the popular nickname for New York, the Empire State,[3] it is one of the most famous landmarks in the US.[4][5] When the Empire State Building opened on May 1, 1931, it was the world's tallest building.

## History

Designed by the architects named Shreve, Lamb & Harmon Associates,[6][3] it was built at a time when many people were trying to make the world's tallest building, but the Empire State Building won.[7][8] The old Waldorf-Astoria Hotel was destroyed so that the Empire State Building could be built.[9] The Empire State Building was completed in 410 days. It opened on May 1, 1931, when United States President Herbert Hoover pushed a button in Washington, D.C. to turn on the lights.[10][11][12] The Empire State Building's design was based on the 21-story Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem, built in 1929.[3] In the 1930s, the Empire State Building was called the "Empty State Building" because not many people worked in the building.[13]

The Empire State Building became the tallest building in New York City and the world until the first World Trade Center towers passed it in 1970. When these towers were brought down in the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Empire State Building was again the tallest building in New York.[14][15] It stopped being New York's tallest building in 2012 when the new One World Trade Center was built.[16]

On Saturday, July 28, 1945, a plane crashed into the building due to heavy fog and started a fire, but the building was only damaged a little. 14 people (3 in the plane) were killed in the accident.[17][18]

## Building design

The Empire State Building is at 350 Fifth Avenue. The building has its own ZIP Code, 10118.[19][20] There is a big Art Deco lobby with shops at Fifth Avenue.[21] People can also go to a lobby on 34th Street.[22] The Empire State Building has 73 elevators.[23]

The 80th, 86th, and 102nd floors have places where people can look at the city from high above.[24][25] There is a steel mast on the top of the Empire State Building. The builders wanted to have an airship station on the roof, but the station was not opened. Today, people cannot go to the mast.[26][27][28] The mast has a radio transmitter.[29] The Empire State Building also lights up at night.[30]

## References

1. Willis & Friedman 1998, p. 14.
2. "Empire State Building" The Skyscraper Center Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat website
3. Al-Kodmany 2017, p. 72.
4. Young, William H.; Young, Nancy K. (2007). The Great Depression in America: A Cultural Encyclopedia. The Great Depression in America: A Cultural Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press. pp. 144–145. . Retrieved October 25, 2017.
6. "Smith Skyscraper Has a Novel Design; Setbacks of the Empire State Building Will Begin With the Sixth Story". The New York Times. 1930. . Retrieved December 8, 2017.
8. "Razing Of Waldorf Started By Smith; Ceremony on Roof Marks the Beginning of Demolition of Historic Hotel". The New York Times. October 2, 1929. . Retrieved October 22, 2017.
10. Tauranac 2014, pp. 227–228.
11. "Empire State Tower, Tallest In World, Is Opened By Hoover; The Highest Structure Raised By The Hand Of Man". The New York Times. May 2, 1931. . Retrieved October 23, 2017.
12. See:
• Schleier, Merrill (1990). The skyscraper in American art, 1890-1931. New York, N.Y: Da Capo Press. p. 120.
. .  . Archived from the original on October 19, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2010.
13.
14. "It's official: 1 WTC is New York's new tallest building". Daily News (New York). April 30, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2020.
15. "Crash Fire Ruins Sculptor's Studio; Photo-diagram Of The Plane Crash". The New York Times. July 29, 1945. . Retrieved October 24, 2017.
16. Taranath 2016, p. 459.
17. Ricciulli, Valeria (December 2, 2019). "Empire State Building completes \$165M revamp with new observatory".
18. Tauranac 2014, p. 186.
20. Rothstein, Edward (July 15, 2011). "A View Inside King Kong's Perch". The New York Times. . Retrieved May 27, 2013. }
21. Kinney, Harrison; Gill, Brendan (April 1, 1953). "The Talk of the Town". The New Yorker: 19.
22. Melina, Remy (August 24, 2010). "What Do the Empire State Building's Lights Mean?".

## Books

      . https://books.google.com/books?id=4i8lDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA69.

      . https://books.google.com/books?id=OTh8b2cyGBcC&pg=PA72.

      . https://books.google.com/books?id=PXnRBQAAQBAJ.

      . https://archive.org/details/empirestatebuild0000taur.

• Willis, Carol; Friedman, Donald (1998). Building the Empire State. W.W. Norton.
      .